What is the matter of the universe? Scientists have the answer


A handout photograph released by the European Southern Observatory shows a composite image of the Abell 2597 galaxy cluster depiction

A handout photograph released by the European Southern Observatory shows an overall image of the Abell 2597 galaxy cluster, showing a fountain-like flow of gas in the central galaxy driven by a supermassive black hole.

A team of American astrophysicists has made the most accurate measurement of a long-term mystery of the universe for a long time in the universe.


Answer, published in de Astrophysical Journal On Monday, this is the case for 31.5 percent – giving the universe and 1.3 percent of the total volume and energy that make up the universe.

The remaining 68.5 percent is dark energy, a mysterious force that is causing the universe to expand over time, and was first inferred from observations of distant supernovae in the late 1990s.

Another way, this means that the total amount of matter in the observable universe is equal to 66 billion trillion times the mass of our Sun, reported Riverside astrophysicist and lead author of the paper AFP, a University of California.

Most of the cases – 80 percent – are called dark matter. Its nature is not yet known, but it may contain some as-yet-unseen sub-atomic particles.

The latest measurements match well with the values ​​already obtained by other teams using different cosmological techniques, such as measuring temperature fluctuations in low energy radiation left over from the Big Bang.

“It has been a long process over the course of 100 years where we are slowly becoming more accurate”, said AFP, co-author of the study and a professor at UCR.

“This planet is simply cool without Earth being able to take such a fundamental measure about the universe,” he said.

So how do you actually weigh the universe?

The team respected a 90-year-old technology that involves looking at how many galaxies are within galaxy clusters that have thousands of galaxies.

These observations told him how strong the gravitational force of each galaxy cluster was, from which its total mass could be calculated.

Fate of the universe

In fact, explained Wilson, his technique was originally developed by the pioneering astronomer Fritz Zwicky, who was the first to suspect the existence of dark matter in galaxy clusters in the 1930s.

They noticed that the galaxies whose combined gravitational mass they had seen in the nearby Coma galaxy cluster were insufficient to prevent those galaxies from moving away from each other, and felt that some other invisible material would be in play.

The UCR team, whose research received funding from the US National Science Foundation and NASA, refined Zwicky’s technology, developing a tool called galvite that more accurately determines which galaxies are in a given Belong to the cluster and which do not.

He applied his instrument to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the most detailed three-dimensional map of the currently available universe, measuring the mass of 1,800 galaxy clusters and creating a catalog.

Finally, he compared the number of clusters seen per unit volume in his list against a series of computer simulations, each of which was given a different value for the total case of the universe.

Very few case simulations had too few clusters, while those with too many cases had too many clusters.

He got the value of “Goldilocks” right.

Wilson explained that having a more accurate measurement of the total amount of matter in the universe can take us one step closer to knowing the nature of dark matter, because “we know the amount of time that scientists have to move particles Should appear in “For example, using the Large Hadron Collider.

“The total amount of Dark Matter and Dark Energy tells us the fate of the Universe,” he said, with the current scientific consensus that we are headed for the “Big Freeze”, where galaxies separate back and forth. , And the stars of those galaxies eventually run out of fuel.


Scientists accurately measure the total amount of matter in the universe


more information:
Mohammad H. Abdullah and others, on ances meters from H and uster uster Cluster Abundance using ances Galcat 19 optical-spectroscopic SDSS catalog The Astrophysical Journal (2020). DOI: 10.3847 / 1538-4357 / aba619

© 2020 AFP

Quotes: What is the point of the Universe? Scientists Reply (2020, 29 September) Retrieved 1 October 2020 from https://phys.org/news/2020-09-universe-scientists.html

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