Home / Science / We live in a galaxy & deformed & twisted & # 39; according to the first accurate 3D map of the Milky Way

We live in a galaxy & deformed & twisted & # 39; according to the first accurate 3D map of the Milky Way




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Artistic impression of the deformed and twisted disk of the Milky Way.Chen Xiaodian

How & nbsp; you measure something you're in & nbsp; inside? We have all seen innumerable images of our Milky Way, but have you ever considered this: none of them is real. All are artists' impressions of what astronomers think the Milky Way is probably.

Now we know that the Milky Way is not flat. Astronomers from the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia, have just published an article in Nature astronomy that reveals that the Milky Way is "warped, twisted and burned" far from the center of the Milky Way.

"Usually, we think that spiral galaxies are quite flat, like Andromeda, which can be easily seen through a telescope." says Professor Richard de Grijs, coauthor and astronomer at Macquarie University.

The Andromeda Galaxy, or M31.Getty

How does the Milky Way work?

When viewed from a great distance, the galaxy of the Milky Way would look like a thin disk of stars that orbit once every few hundred million years around its central region. The 300 billion stars, along with a mass of dark matter, provide the "glue" gravitational to keep everything together, say astronomers.

What causes the warp in the form of S?

What is deformed are clouds of hydrogen in the outer galaxy. It is the change in the force of gravity away from the inner region of the galaxy that causes the S-shaped deformation of the Milky Way. "It is very difficult to determine the distances from the Sun to parts of the outer gas disk of the Milky Way without having a clear idea of ​​how that disk actually looks." & Nbsp; said Dr. Chen Xiaodian, NAOC researcher and lead author of the article. "However, we recently published a new catalog of well-behaved variable stars known as classic Cepheids, for which you can determine such precise distances from 3 to 5%."

RS Puppis is one of the most famous Cepheid variable stars in the Milky Way galaxy.Hubble Space Telescope

What is a Cepheid star?

Bright stars and bright yellow supergiants. Cepheid stars are often referred to as "cosmic criteria" orstandard candles& # 39; and much of what astronomers know about distances in the Universe is due to the observations of these young pulsing stars. In the study, 1,339 Cepheids were studied, each of them up to 100,000 brighter than the Sun.

Why are Cepheid stars important??

Cepheids pulse predictably, so changes in their luminosity can be used to obtain a highly reliable distance. The team used Cepheids & # 39; classics, which pulse for days or months. Cepheids were first discovered in 1912 by Henrietta Swan Leavitt at the Harvard University Observatory, after studying thousands of variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds, two dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. His work was then used by Edwin Hubble to determine that some nebulae that could be seen from Earth were, in fact, distant galaxies. Then those data were used to calculate that the farther the galaxy is, the faster it gets away from us: the Hubble Constant, which & nbsp; describes the Expanding universe.

For astronomers in China and Australia, data on these classic Cepheid stars were provided by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), allowing the team to develop the first accurate three-dimensional image of our Milky Way in its most remote regions.

NASA's Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, was released & nbsp; in 2009. WISE scans the entire sky with infrared light, capturing the brightness of hundreds of millions of objects and producing millions of images.POT

Why does this matter?

"Something to our surprise, we found that in 3D our collection of 1,339 Cepheid stars and the gas disk of the Milky Way are closely followed, which offers new insights into the formation of our galaxy of origin," & nbsp;He said of grijs. "Perhaps more importantly, in the outer regions of the Milky Way, we find that the S-type stellar disc is deformed into a progressively twisted spiral pattern."

"This new morphology provides a crucial updated map for studies of the stellar motions of our galaxy and the origins of the Milky Way disk." & Nbsp;He said Dr. Deng Licai, principal investigator of NAOC and co-author of the article.

What causes the deformation??

During the last 50 years, there have been indications that hydrogen clouds in the Milky Way are deformed. Astronomers have observed a dozen other galaxies that showed similarly twisted spiral patterns similar in their outer regions. "Combining our results with these other observations, we conclude that the deformed spiral pattern of the Milky Way is probably caused by" torques ", or rotational forcing, by the massive internal disk," & nbsp; said Dr. & nbsp; Liu Chao, principal investigator and co-author of the article.

Wishing you clear skies and wide open eyes.

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Artistic impression of the deformed and twisted disk of the Milky Way.Chen Xiaodian

How do you measure something within what you are? We have all seen innumerable images of our Milky Way, but have you ever considered this: none of them is real. All are artists' impressions of what astronomers think is probably the Milky Way.

Now we know that the Milky Way is not flat. Astronomers from the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia have just published an article in Nature astronomy that reveals that the Milky Way is "warped, twisted and burned" far from the center of the Milky Way.

"In general, we think that spiral galaxies are quite flat, like Andromeda, which can be easily seen through a telescope," says Professor Richard de Grijs, co-author and astronomer at Macquarie University.

The Andromeda Galaxy, or M31.Getty

How does the Milky Way work?

When viewed from a great distance, the galaxy of the Milky Way would look like a thin disk of stars that orbit once every few hundred million years around its central region. The 300 billion stars, along with a mass of dark matter, provide the "glue" gravitational to keep everything together, say astronomers.

What causes the warp in the form of S?

What is deformed are clouds of hydrogen in the outer galaxy. It is the change in the force of gravity away from the inner region of the galaxy that causes the S-shaped deformation of the Milky Way. "It is notoriously difficult to determine the distances from the Sun to parts of the outer gas disk of the Milky Way without having a clear idea of ​​how that disc looks," said Dr. Chen Xiaodian, a NAOC researcher and lead author of the article. . "However, we recently published a new catalog of well-behaved variable stars known as classic Cepheids, for which you can determine such precise distances from 3 to 5%."

RS Puppis is one of the most famous Cepheid variable stars in the Milky Way galaxy.Hubble Space Telescope

What is a Cepheid star?

Bright stars and bright yellow supergiants. Cepheid stars are often referred to as "cosmic criteria" or "standard candles," and much of what astronomers know about distances in the Universe is due to the observations of these young pulsing stars. In the study, 1,339 Cepheids were studied, each of them up to 100,000 brighter than the Sun.

Why are Cepheid stars important??

Cepheids pulse in a predictable manner, so changes in their luminosity can be used to obtain a highly reliable distance. The team used Cepheids & # 39; classics, which pulse for days or months. Cepheids were first discovered in 1912 by Henrietta Swan Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory after studying thousands of variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds, two dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. His work was then used by Edwin Hubble to determine that some nebulae that could be seen from Earth were, in fact, distant galaxies. Then those data were used to calculate that the farther the galaxy is, the faster it moves away from us: the Hubble Constant, which describes the expansion of the Universe.

For astronomers in China and Australia, the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WISE) provided data on these classic Cepheid stars, which allowed the team to develop the first accurate three-dimensional image of our Milky Way in its outermost regions.

NASA's Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, was launched in 2009. WISE scans the entire sky with infrared light, capturing the brightness of hundreds of millions of objects and producing millions of images.POT

Why does this matter?

"To our surprise, we found that in 3D our collection of 1,339 Cepheid stars and the gas disk of the Milky Way are closely watched, which offers new insights into the formation of our local galaxy." He said of grijs. "Perhaps more important, in the outer regions of the Milky Way, we find that the S-type stellar disk is deformed into a progressively twisted spiral pattern."

"This new morphology provides a crucial updated map for studies of the stellar motions of our galaxy and the origins of the Milky Way disk" He said Dr. Deng Licai, principal investigator of NAOC and co-author of the article.

What causes the deformation??

During the last 50 years, there have been indications that hydrogen clouds in the Milky Way are deformed. Astronomers have observed a dozen other galaxies that showed similarly twisted spiral patterns similar in their outer regions. "Combining our results with these other observations, we conclude that the deformed spiral pattern of the Milky Way is probably caused by 'torques', or rotational forcing, by the massive internal disk," he said. Dr. Liu Chao, principal investigator and co-author of the paper.

Wishing you clear skies and wide open eyes.

If you liked this article, you may also like these:

Texas claims the third sanctuary of the dark sky in the United States while continuing the fight against light pollution

The galaxy will crash into the Milky Way, awaken the black hole and could send the solar system "flying into space"

Mysterious object of & # 39; Lack of link & # 39; found at the edge of the solar system by scientists using tiny telescopes

When is the next & # 39; Super Blood Wolf Moon & # 39 ;? How to see another lunar eclipse before dying


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