With its orbit near the rising or setting sun, Venus first clearly shone for ancient astronomers. As humanity began to explore the solar system, an Earth with roughly the same mass and radius as its most promising target. Venus Sits on the border of our sun’s habitable zoneThe area around a star where a planet should be able to host liquid water on its surface, and float the thoughts of a true twin planet before the eyes of scientists and people.
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“Thoughts of a temperate or jungle-style atmosphere on the Venus surface persisted until the mid-60s,” Stephen Kane, a planet-hunter at the University of California, Riverside, told Space.com by email. he said that “Journey to prehistoric planet, “The last Hollywood film to feature astronauts on Venus came in 1965, the same year that the Soviet Venera 3 probe was launched, which was bound to crash-land on the planet. In the film, landing in 2020 Fantasy astronauts were filled with a Swampland. Along with dinosaurs, Venus is a very different environment than scientists know today.
When NASA’s Mariner 5 flew from Venus in 1967, it revealed a surface temperature of 860 degrees Fahrenheit (460 degrees Celsius). Suzanne Smrecker of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California told SpaceCap via email, “The swamp flew digitally before their eyes.” Smrecker is NASA’s principal investigator VERITAS mission proposed for Venus. (The name Venus is an abbreviation for Amicity, Radio Science, Insar, Topography, and Spectroscopy.)
No more swampy sisters, our vision Venus became a hellish world With thick clouds, it had previously turned into science-fiction, losing much attention. With enough surface to melt lead, the planet was boiling too much to host water on its surface. Its potential for life was fading with swamps.
But when the fickle masses turned their eyes to the red world of Mars, scientists continued to study Earth’s twins. “We started trying to understand how Venus’s surface could be removed from previous ideas,” Kane said.
In the last 50 years, humans have tried to solve that puzzle. the Soviet Union Venus mission continued to be sent to Venus By the early 1980s, some of the world and others circled to its surface. NASA’s Viking and Pioneer missions took photographs of the solar system’s outskirts and collected data on their way.
In 1990, NASA’s Magellan mission mapped the planet’s surface and the European Space Agency Venus express Circled the world for eight years, studied its environment. In 2015, Akatsuki Mission of Japan An investigation into the atmosphere of Venus began which continues to this day. Meanwhile, the Solar System’s missions routinely use Venus as a force of gravity in distant worlds, making such brief observations over the past few years.
Numerous observations have presented a slowly changing picture of Venus, along with understanding how planets develop. Can help solve results Questions about the development of life.
“Although Venus’s hellish conditions were realized during the 60s, many believe that Venus has nothing to do with habitat, we have since changed our perspective to understand that Venus is Everything To do with the habit, ”Kane said.
Earth’s future, Earth’s past
During the early stages of the exploration, scientists quickly realized that a severe case of Venus was suffering Green House Effect. The thick atmosphere of the planet worked as a blanket to trap heat, bringing the temperature to unbearable extremes.
“Many believed Venus was a ‘solved problem’ where a fugitive greenhouse landscape drove Amco and that was the end of the story,” Kane said. “However, we are now realizing that this is only the beginning.”
The conditions that once led scientists to doubt Venus could have been a world like Earth. The same origins appear in both planets: rocky worlds mature enough to collect water on the surface with an initial position sufficient to hold onto their atmosphere. So where did Venus go wrong?
This is a question that still harms Venus researchers as they try to determine the conditions that lead to habituation and those that cause an extreme catastrophe. The question behind is whether the Venusian environment had dramatically changed into a single catastrophe or was it a slow change over time.
Ongoing observations have also shown that Venus is anything but inactive. Low-resolution radar images of the surface have shown evidence for this Recent explosive volcanoesWithin the last 100 million years. If our twin planet continues to blow gases through its peaks, it would argue for a slower change in the atmosphere rather than a catastrophe.
These questions are particularly relevant to the Earth, where man-made greenhouse gases continue to build up in the atmosphere. Some Venus point to the future of our planet as a sign if human behavior does not change.
But the planet next door Can not only reveal our future, It can also show our past. According to Smrecker, Venus is the only place in the solar system that can contain continents and precipitates, the first step in kicking up plate tectonics. Despite a long list of missions that have visited the planet, however, our view of the surface is tantrically minimal. If Venus has continents, planetary scientists want to know when and how they were formed, which may help researchers better understand the Earth.
“The system of Earth’s continents and plate tectonics has shaped the evolution of Earth’s climate and habitability,” Smrecker said. “But they came into existence billions of years ago; very little data survives since that time.”
It is also possible that it was Venus and not Earth, where life first appeared in the solar system. According to Smrecker, our twin planet has many characteristics for a habitable world – in the past an internal geologic engine to drive volcanoes, tectonics, surface weathering, and even a possible ocean. “Even though its surface looks very inaccessible today, it may be the first habitable planet in the past,” she said.
Exoplanet next door
As the number of known exoplanets climbs into the thousands, Venus may be the key to unlocking and understanding which of those worlds is habitable. The planets around other stars are seen from an incredible distance, and it is unlikely that humans will step on any of them in the near future. But from afar, a potentially habitable exo-Earth resembles Exo-Venus.
“If seen as an exoplanet, Venus and Earth are the same,” Smrecker said. “Yet they are completely different today.”
In 2015, Ken “established” aVenus region, “The area around a star where a planet’s atmosphere can evolve into a greenhouse world. At the time, he said he wanted to emphasize the shape alone, which is the primary way of making the world” Earth-like “. Is one of the. Not enough to indicate habit.
To sort a world like hellish Venus, it is necessary to know what the planet Venus has become today. “The key to understanding the habit of the planets and helping our sister planets evolve over time,” said Ken.
This is why scientists like Smrecker and Kane advocate another mission for Venus. Further exploration may prey for signs that were present relatively recently on the surface of the water, which may indicate that the planet has gradually lost its habitable position rather than suffering from an accelerated catastrophe.
Wayne said, “We must return to Venus to answer many outstanding questions, especially when Venus has lost its liquid water.”
Kane says that Venus can help provide a better insight into the evolution of life on other worlds than other non-Earth terrestrial planets in the solar system.
“The theme of habit in terms of exoplanet will always be focused on planets the size of Earth and Venus, and not on Mars,” Kane said. “The quest to explore life in the universe requires one to understand the incredible Venus-Earth dichotomy.”
After being ignored for decades, Venus may soon be at center stage.
New results, Released on Monday (14 September), reveals the presence of a possible biological signal that may come from life hidden in the planet’s clouds. Earth’s twin clouds have long been considered Potential home for life, But the discovery of phosphine, a flammable gas that can come from the breakdown of organic matter, on Earth, gives the subject new urgency.
“Biology in the atmosphere may be the last surviving member of a former Venusian biosphere,” Kane said. “If life is confirmed to be the result of life in the clouds, then this result will be an extraordinary lesson in how life can truly adapt to all available wealth within an environment.”
But Kane issued some caveats to that conclusion. If present-day life lived in Venus’ clouds, he would have found a way to continuously roam the atmosphere instead of falling back to the planet’s surface, which he calls “a difficult problem to solve”. While life has been discovered in Earth’s clouds, that material has been lifted upward through convection from the surface, as warmer and less dense materials have moved upward. That mechanism does not exist on Venus, Kane said.
Additionally, Venus’ climate is hot, dry, and surrounded by large reservoirs of sulfuric acid, all of which can make it difficult to survive for the past one billion years, from the time when the surface can once host life, Ken said. And new research is based on phosphine production on Earth, while Venus’s surface and atmosphere vary greatly.
She thinks that the new results highlight the need to search for active and recent volcanoes. While the authors dismiss active volcanoes as an explanation for their detection, she suggests that it is difficult to observe on Venus, where signs of lava may disappear within days or weeks. Understanding the chemistry of the surface and the processes that make up the volcano are important to explain the new research, which he said is “intriguing and highlights the need to better understand our sister planet.”
For Kane, the new results underscore the need to return to Earth’s twin in the near future.
“As claimed and we do not currently have a good explanation for the comments, we have the responsibility to investigate further and determine what the true source of phosphine is.” He pointed to upcoming missions including VERITAS, which will help scientists understand the planet’s atmosphere and geology.
“It is through such missions that we will be able to fully answer this question of possible life in the Venusian clouds,” Kane said.
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