Top science and technology achievements of 2020 in the world


NEW DELHI: Even though the epidemic slowed life on Earth, it could not stop scientists from all over the world from looking beyond.
From cultivating crops in space to self-driving to robot driving services on the road, this year saw some revolutionary advances in science and technology.
As a new year, here is a look at some interesting scientific discoveries and technological achievements of 2020-
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Vaccines produced by Pfizer / Bayonet and Modern against Kovid-19 became the first vaccines developed using messenger RNA. This marks the fastest vaccine development and approval, taking only 10 months.
Pfizer vaccine shows 95% efficacy in preventing symptomatic Kovid infection. Whereas the modern vaccine is 94.1% effective at preventing psychotropic covid-19.
Plastic food ‘super-enzyme’

To address a different ecological crisis, scientists created plastic-eating “super-enzymes” that can break bottles in days.
A common type of plastic called polyethylene terephthalate breaks down enzymes – which are used in single-use bottles as well as clothing and carpets – in their chemical building blocks.
Water on the moon

NASA announced that for the first time they found water on the surface of the moon. NASA confirmed the presence of the water molecule, H2O, in sunlight areas of the Moon. This indicates that water is widely distributed over the lunar surface.
However, the moon is so dry that as a comparison, the lunar soil in the Sahara Desert has 100 times more water than the SOFIA mission could detect.
Water molecules have been detected in the Clavius ​​crater. The crater is located in the southern hemisphere of the Moon and is one of the largest craters visible from Earth.
First crop occurred in space

NASA astronaut Kate Rubins harvested radish plants growing in the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) aboard the International Space Station.
They carefully collected and wrapped each of the 20 radish plants in cold storage for a return trip to Earth in 2021.
The plant experiment is the first time NASA has grown radishes in the orbiting laboratory at APH.
Do aliens exist?

Scientists found, what they said, one of the first signs of detecting an exoplanet in the radio field. The first possible radio signal is believed to be about 51 light-years away from a planet outside the solar system.
Researchers also observed other possible exoplanetary radio-emission candidates in the constellation cancer and the Epsilon Andromede system.
Driverless robotaxis

Venmo became the first company in Chandler, Arizona to provide self-driving car services to the general public without a human supervisor. While autonomous vehicle provider ZoX also revealed a fully functional, electric, autonomous vehicle designed for dense, urban environments.
The fact of eliminating the need for human outposts can make Robotaxi a very economical solution for customers.
Chang’5 brings samples from the moon

In December, the moon received a new visitor: China’s Chang’-5 lander – a robotic mission of the Chinese lunar exploration program. It returned to Earth and collected 1,731 grams of samples from the Moon. It was China’s first attempt to bring samples to the moon in more than 40 years when the US sent astronauts to the moon to collect samples.
NASA’s Mars 2020 Mission

Mars 2020 is a Mars Rover mission by NASA’s Mars Exploration Program consisting of the Perseverance Rover and the Simplicity helicopter Halon. It will study habitable conditions on Mars in preparation for future manned missions.
World’s oldest meteorite crater found

A crater in Western Australia was formed by a meteor strike 2.2 billion years ago and is the world’s oldest known impact site. The revelation also raises the intriguing possibility that large-scale impacts could significantly alter Earth’s climate, ending the global “deep freeze” period.
Wind speed measured on a brown dwarf

For the first time, scientists have measured wind speed directly on a brown dwarf, a type of substellar object that is larger than Jupiter (the largest planet in our solar system), but not sufficiently large to become a star .
To achieve the discovery, they used a new method that could also be applied to learn about the atmosphere of gas-dominated planets outside the solar system.
(With inputs from agencies)

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