This is what will be the final destiny of the Earth




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The Solar System was formed from a cloud of gas, which gave rise to a protopastor, a protoplanetary disk and, finally, the seeds of what would become planets. The crowning achievement of the history of our own Solar System is the creation and formation of Earth exactly as we have it today, which may not have been a cosmic weirdness as special as we thought. Our planet will persist for a long time, but like everything else in this Universe, we will not last forever.

NASA / Dana Berry

It took the Universe 13.8 billion years to create the planet Earth as we know it, but we will not last forever.

When two bodies collide with each other in space, the resulting collision can be catastrophic for one or both. Even though the Earth has been hit before and is likely to be hit again many times in the future, the chances of a collision occurring with enough power to destroy our planet completely are extraordinarily low, even at timescales astronomical Our planet will face its demise in another way.

NASA / JPL

Many catastrophic events & nbsp; They wait for our world in the future, but Earth will outlive most of them.

The largest human explosion that ever occurred on Earth was the Tsar Bomb of the Soviet Union, which was detonated in 1961. Nuclear war and subsequent damage to the environment is a potential way for humanity to reach its finish. However, even if all the nuclear weapons on Earth were detonated at the same time, the planet would remain intact.

1961 explosion of Tsar Bomb; flickr / Andy Zeigert

Nothing humanity can do, from triggering climate catastrophes & nbsp; to the thermonuclear war, & nbsp; It will truly destroy the planet.

Today on Earth, ocean water only boils, typically, when lava or some other superheated material enters it. But in the distant future, the Sun's energy will be enough to do it, and on a global scale.

Jennifer Williams / flickr

After & nbsp; 2 billion years, the increase in energy production of the Sun will boil Earth's oceans, but the planet itself will survive.

A series of still images showing the fusion of the Milky Way with Andromeda, and how the sky will look different from Earth as it happens. This fusion will occur approximately 4 billion years in the future, with a huge burst of star formation that will lead to an elliptical galaxy without gas, red and dead: Milkdromeda. A unique and large elliptical is the final destination of the entire local group. Despite the enormous scales and the number of stars involved, only about 1 in 100 billion stars will collide or merge during this event.

POT; Z. Levay and R. van der Marel, STScI; T. Hallas; and A. Mellinger

In about 4 billion years, Andromeda and the Milky Way will merge, but the gravitational ejection and stellar collisions that affect us are unfavorable.

After approximately five to seven billion additional years, the Sun will deplete the hydrogen in its core. The interior will contract, heat up and helium fusion will eventually start. At this point, the Sun will swell, vaporize Earth's atmosphere, and chat about what's left of our surface. But even when that catastrophic event occurs, the Earth will remain a planet, although very different from the world we know today.

ESO / Lu & iacute; s Cal & ccedil; ada

After another ~ 6 billion years, the Sun will swell, nbsp; will devour Mercury and Venus, but Earth will persist.

As the Sun becomes a true red giant, the Earth itself can be swallowed or enveloped, but it will definitely be roasted like never before. Venus and Merucry will not be so lucky, since the giant red radius of the Sun will easily encompbad the two innermost worlds of our Solar System, but it is estimated that Earth will be safe in approximately 10 to 20 million miles.

Wikimedia Commons / Fsgregs

Our red giant & nbsp; will die & nbsp; after ~ 9.5 billion years, and the Earth will continue orbiting the Sun's corpse indefinitely.

When the stars of lower mbad, similar to the Sun, run out of fuel, they blow their outer layers in a planetary nebula, but the center contracts to form a white dwarf, which takes a long time to disappear in the dark. The planetary nebula that will generate our Sun will completely vanish, leaving only the white dwarf and our remaining planets, after approximately 9.5 billion years. At times, the objects will tear tidally, adding dusty rings to what remains of our Solar System, but they will be transient.

Mark Garlick / University of Warwick

After & nbsp; 10fifteen years, our white dwarf & nbsp; it will cool completely, but & nbsp; Earth & nbsp; it will remain intact.

A precise comparison of size / color of a white dwarf (L), the Earth that reflects the light of our Sun (center) and a black dwarf (R). When the white dwarfs finally radiate the last of their energy, eventually all will become black dwarfs. However, the degeneration pressure between the electrons inside the black / white dwarf will always be large enough, as long as it does not accumulate too much mbad, to prevent it from collapsing further. This is the destiny of our Sun after an estimated 10 ^ 15 years.

BBC / GCSE (L) / SunflowerCosmos (R)

1019 Within a few years, the gravitational interactions between & nbsp; galactic mbades & nbsp; they will probably eject the & nbsp; remnant of the Solar System & nbsp;

When a large number of gravitational interactions occur between the star systems, a star can receive a kick large enough to be ejected from any structure of which it is a part. We observe fugitive stars in the Milky Way even today; Once they are gone, they will never come back. It is estimated that this will happen for our Sun sometime between 10 ^ 17 and 10 ^ 19 years from now, with the last most likely option. However, most scenarios involve the Earth-Moon system remaining attached to the Sun when this occurs.

J. Walsh and Z. Levay, ESA / NASA

Random mergers, collisions or gravitational expulsions are possible, & nbsp; but & nbsp; they represent unlikely results.

Particular configurations over time, or singular gravitational interactions with large mbades that pbad, can result in the interruption and expulsion of large bodies of solar and planetary systems. In the early stages of a solar system, many mbades are expelled only from the gravitational interactions that arise between protoplanets, but in the later stages, only random encounters cause planetary expulsions, and they are rarer than those that will eject entire solar systems . .

Shantanu Basu, Eduard I. Vorobyov and Alexander L. DeSouza; http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.3713

On the other hand, the eventual disappearance of the Earth & nbsp; It happens when our orbit decays through gravitational waves.

After the Sun becomes a black dwarf, if nothing is ejected or collides with the remnants of Earth, the gravitational radiation will eventually cause us to spirally spiral and be swallowed by the remnant of our Sun.

Image courtesy of Jeff Bryant.

Finally we will be swallowed by our remaining black dwarf after about 1025& nbsp; years.

When objects get too close in orbit around another mbad, such as a white dwarf (or black dwarf, in the distant future), gravitational waves will cause them to be inspired at faster and faster speeds, while tidal forces will tear apart. object in a ring. and / or debris disk. This will be the final destination that will take our planet to its demise.

NASA / JPL-Caltech


For the most part, Silent Monday tells the scientific story of an object or phenomenon in this Universe in images, images and no more than 200 words. Talk less; smile more.

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The Solar System was formed from a cloud of gas, which gave rise to a protopastor, a protoplanetary disk and, finally, the seeds of what would become planets. The crowning achievement of the history of our own Solar System is the creation and formation of Earth exactly as we have it today, which may not have been a cosmic weirdness as special as we thought. Our planet will persist for a long time, but like everything else in this Universe, we will not last forever.

NASA / Dana Berry

It took the Universe 13.8 billion years to create the planet Earth as we know it, but it will not last forever.

When two bodies collide with each other in space, the resulting collision can be catastrophic for one or both. Even though the Earth has been hit before and is likely to be hit again many times in the future, the chances of a collision occurring with enough power to destroy our planet completely are extraordinarily low, even at timescales astronomical Our planet will face its demise in another way.

NASA / JPL

Many catastrophic events await our world in the future, but Earth will outlive most of them.

The largest human explosion that ever occurred on Earth was the Tsar Bomb of the Soviet Union, which was detonated in 1961. Nuclear war and subsequent damage to the environment is a potential way for humanity to reach its finish. However, even if all the nuclear weapons on Earth were detonated at the same time, the planet would remain intact.

1961 explosion of Tsar Bomb; flickr / Andy Zeigert

Nothing that humanity can do, from triggering global climatic catastrophes to thermonuclear war, will truly destroy the planet.

Today on Earth, ocean water only boils, typically, when lava or some other superheated material enters it. But in the distant future, the Sun's energy will be enough to do it, and on a global scale.

Jennifer Williams / flickr

After 2 billion years, the increased production of energy from the Sun will boil Earth's oceans, but the planet itself will survive.

A series of still images showing the fusion of the Milky Way with Andromeda, and how the sky will look different from Earth as it happens. This fusion will occur approximately 4 billion years in the future, with a huge burst of star formation that will lead to an elliptical galaxy without gas, red and dead: Milkdromeda. A unique and large elliptical is the final destination of the entire local group. Despite the enormous scales and the number of stars involved, only about 1 in 100 billion stars will collide or merge during this event.

POT; Z. Levay and R. van der Marel, STScI; T. Hallas; and A. Mellinger

In about 4 billion years, Andromeda and the Milky Way will merge, but the gravitational ejection and stellar collisions that affect us are unfavorable.

After approximately five to seven billion additional years, the Sun will deplete the hydrogen in its core. The interior will contract, heat up and helium fusion will eventually start. At this point, the Sun will swell, vaporize Earth's atmosphere, and chat about what's left of our surface. But even when that catastrophic event occurs, the Earth will remain a planet, although very different from the world we know today.

ESO / Luís Calçada

After another ~ 6 billion years, the Sun will swell, devouring Mercury and Venus, but the Earth will persist.

As the Sun becomes a true red giant, the Earth itself can be swallowed or enveloped, but it will definitely be roasted like never before. Venus and Merucry will not be so lucky, since the giant red radius of the Sun will easily encompbad the two innermost worlds of our Solar System, but it is estimated that Earth will be safe in approximately 10 to 20 million miles.

Wikimedia Commons / Fsgregs

Our red giant will die after ~ 9,500 million years, and the Earth will continue to orbit the body of the Sun for an indefinite time.

When the stars of lower mbad, similar to the Sun, run out of fuel, they blow their outer layers in a planetary nebula, but the center contracts to form a white dwarf, which takes a long time to disappear in the dark. The planetary nebula that will generate our Sun will completely vanish, leaving only the white dwarf and our remaining planets, after approximately 9.5 billion years. At times, the objects will tear tidally, adding dusty rings to what remains of our Solar System, but they will be transient.

Mark Garlick / University of Warwick

After 10fifteen Years, our white dwarf will be completely cold, but the Earth will remain intact.

A precise comparison of size / color of a white dwarf (L), the Earth that reflects the light of our Sun (center) and a black dwarf (R). When the white dwarfs finally radiate the last of their energy, eventually all will become black dwarfs. However, the degeneration pressure between the electrons inside the black / white dwarf will always be large enough, as long as it does not accumulate too much mbad, to prevent it from collapsing further. This is the destiny of our Sun after an estimated 10 ^ 15 years.

BBC / GCSE (L) / SunflowerCosmos (R)

1019 Within a few years, gravitational interactions between galactic mbades will likely eject the remnant of the Solar System.

When a large number of gravitational interactions occur between the star systems, a star can receive a kick large enough to be ejected from any structure of which it is a part. We observe fugitive stars in the Milky Way even today; Once they are gone, they will never come back. It is estimated that this will happen for our Sun sometime between 10 ^ 17 and 10 ^ 19 years from now, with the last most likely option. However, most scenarios involve the Earth-Moon system remaining attached to the Sun when this occurs.

J. Walsh and Z. Levay, ESA / NASA

Random mergers, collisions or gravitational ejections are possible, but they represent unlikely results.

Particular configurations over time, or singular gravitational interactions with large mbades that pbad, can result in the interruption and expulsion of large bodies of solar and planetary systems. In the early stages of a solar system, many mbades are expelled only from the gravitational interactions that arise between protoplanets, but in the later stages, only random encounters cause planetary expulsions, and they are rarer than those that will eject entire solar systems . .

Shantanu Basu, Eduard I. Vorobyov and Alexander L. DeSouza; http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.3713

On the other hand, the eventual disappearance of the Earth occurs when our orbit decays through gravitational waves.

After the Sun becomes a black dwarf, if nothing is ejected or collides with the remnants of Earth, the gravitational radiation will eventually cause us to spirally spiral and be swallowed by the remnant of our Sun.

Image courtesy of Jeff Bryant.

Ultimately, we will be swallowed by our remaining black dwarf after about 1025 years.

When objects get too close in orbit around another mbad, such as a white dwarf (or black dwarf, in the distant future), gravitational waves will cause them to be inspired at faster and faster speeds, while tidal forces will tear apart. object in a ring. and / or debris disk. This will be the final destination that will take our planet to its demise.

NASA / JPL-Caltech


For the most part, Silent Monday tells the scientific story of an object or phenomenon in this Universe in images, images and no more than 200 words. Talk less; smile more.


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