This is what we know about black holes before the event The first image of the Horizon telescope




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A very curved illustration of spacetime, outside the event horizon of a black hole. As you get closer and closer to the location of the mbad, the space becomes more severely curved, which eventually leads to a location from which not even light can escape: the event horizon. The radius of that location is established by the mbad of the black hole, the speed of light and the laws of General Relativity only.

Pixabay JohnsonMartin user

For hundreds of years, physicists have hypothesized that the Universe should contain black holes. If enough matter accumulates in a volume of space small enough, the gravitational attraction will be so strong that nothing in the Universe & nbsp; no particles, no antiparticles, not even light itself & nbsp; You can escape. They are predicted by Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity, and astrophysicists have observed many candidate objects that are consistent with black holes and not with other explanations.

But We have never seen the event horizon before: the unique feature signature of & nbsp; black holes, from the dark region where nothing can escape. On April 10, 2019, the collaboration of the Event Horizon Telescope. will launch its first image of such event horizon. This is what we know at this moment, the eve of this monumental discovery.

The black hole in the center of the Milky Way, along with the real and physical size of the event horizon represented in white. The visual extension of the darkness will appear to be 250-300% as large as the event horizon itself.

Ute Kraus, physics education group Kraus, Universit & auml; t Hildesheim; background: Axel Mellinger

Black holes are an inevitable consequence, at least in theory, of having a speed limit in your Universe. Einstein's theory of General Relativity, which links the fabric of space-time with matter and energy present in the Universe, also contains an integrated relationship between how matter and energy move through space-time. The greater your movement through space, the less your movement will be through time, and vice versa.

But there is a constant that relates that movement: the speed of light. & Nbsp; In General Relativity, the physical size of the predicted event horizon & nbsp; – the size of the region from which nothing can escape & nbsp; – is established by the mbad of the black hole and the speed of light. If the speed of light were faster or slower, the predicted size of the event horizon would be reduced or increased, respectively. If the light moved infinitely fast, there would be no event horizon.

LIGO and Virgo have discovered a new population of black holes with mbades that are larger than what had been seen before with x-ray studies alone (purple). This graph shows the mbades of the ten reliable binary fusions of black holes detected by LIGO / Virgo (blue), together with the fusion of a neutron and neutron star (orange). LIGO / Virgo, with the update in sensitivity, should detect multiple mergers every week starting in April.

LIGO / VIrgo / Northwestern Univ./Frank Elavsky

Astrophysically, black holes are surprisingly easy to create. Only in our galaxy, the Milky Way, there are likely to be hundreds of millions of black holes. At present, we believe that there are three mechanisms capable of forming them, although there may be more.

1. The death of a mbadive star., where the nucleus of a star much heavier than our Sun, rich in heavy elements, collapses under its own gravity. & nbsp; When there is not enough external pressure to counteract the internal gravitational force, the nucleus intervenes. The explosion of the resulting supernova leads to a central black hole.

The photos visible / close to the Hubble IR show a mbadive star, approximately 25 times the mbad of the Sun, which has disappeared from existence, without supernova or other explanation. The direct collapse is the only reasonable explanation of the candidate.

NASA / ESA / C. Kochanek (OSU)

2. The direct collapse of a large amount of matter., which can arise from a star or a gas cloud. If there is enough matter present in a single location in space, it can generate a black hole directly, without a supernova or similar cataclysm to trigger its creation.

3. The collision of two neutron stars., which are the densest and most mbadive objects that do not turn into black holes. Add enough mbad in one, either through accumulation or (more commonly) mergers, and a black hole may arise.

Artistic illustration of two neutron stars merging. The undulating grid of spacetime represents the gravitational waves emitted by the collision, while the narrow rays are the gamma-ray jets that fire just seconds after the gravitational waves (detected by astronomers as a gamma-ray burst). The consequences of the fusion of the neutron star observed in 2017 point towards the creation of a black hole.

NSF / LIGO / Sonoma State University / A. Simonnet

A little more than 0.1% of the stars that have formed in the Universe will eventually become black holes in one of these fashions. Some of these black holes will be only a few times the mbad of our Sun; Others can be hundreds or even thousands of times more mbadive.

But the most mbadive will do what all extremely mbadive objects do when they move through the gravitational mbad collection typical of star clusters and galaxies: they will sink in the center, through The astronomical process of mbadive segregation.. When multiple mbades are grouped in a gravitational well, lighter mbades tend to pick up more momentum and can be ejected, while larger mbades lose angular momentum and accumulate in the center. There, they can accumulate matter, merge, grow and, eventually, become the supermbadive giants that we find today in the centers of galaxies.

The supermbadive black hole at the center of our galaxy, Sagittarius A *, shines brightly on X-rays every time matter is devoured. At other wavelengths of light, from the infrared to the radio, we can see individual stars in this innermost part of the galaxy.

X-ray: NASA / UMbad / D.Wang et al., IR: NASA / STScI

In addition, black holes do not exist in isolation, but in the disordered environment of space, which is filled with matter of various types. When matter approaches a black hole, there will be tidal forces in it. The part of any object that is closest to the black hole experiences a greater gravitational force than the part farthest from the black hole, while the parts that bulge on either side will feel a pinch toward the center of the object.

That said, this results in a set of stretching forces in one direction and compression forces along & nbsp; the perpendicular directions, which causes the object to be infused "spaghettify." & nbsp; The object will be divided into its constituent particles. Due to a series of physical and dynamic properties at play, this will cause matter to accumulate around the black hole in a form similar to a disk: an accretion disk.

An illustration of an active black hole, one that increases matter and accelerates a part of it outward in two perpendicular jets, is an excellent descriptor of how quasars work. Matter that falls into a black hole, of any variety, will be responsible for the additional growth in mbad and size of the black hole. However, despite all the misconceptions that are out there, there is no "suction" of external matter.

Mark A. Garlick

These particles that form the disk are charged and move in orbit around the black hole. When the charged particles move, they create magnetic fields, and the magnetic fields in turn accelerate the charged particles. This should result in a series of observable phenomena, including:

  • emitted photons of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, particularly on the radio,
  • flares that appear at higher energies (as in X-rays) that arise when matter falls into the black hole,
  • and jets of matter and antimatter that accelerate perpendicularly to the accretion disc itself.

All these phenomena have been seen for black holes of various mbades and orientations, giving even more credibility to their existence.

A large number of stars has been detected near the supermbadive black hole in the core of the Milky Way. In addition to these stars and the gas and dust that we found, we predict that there will be more than 10,000 black holes within a few light years of Sagittarius A *, but detecting them was difficult to achieve until early 2018. Solving the central black hole is a This task can only be promoted by the Telescope of the event horizon, and it can still detect its movement over time.

S. Sakai / A. Ghez / W.M. Keck Observatory / UCLA Galactic Center Group

In addition, we have observed the movements of individual stars and stellar remains around the candidates for black holes, which seem to orbit large mbades that have no viable explanations other than black holes. At the center of the Milky Way, for example, we have observed dozens of stars orbiting an object known as Sagittarius A *, which has an inferred mbad of 4 million suns and emits flashes, radio waves and displays positron signatures (a form of antimatter) being ejected perpendicular to the galactic plane.

Other black holes show many of the same signatures, such as the ultrambadive black hole at the center of galaxy M87, which is estimated to weigh a & nbsp; 6.6 billion solar mbades.

The second largest black hole seen from Earth, the one at the center of the galaxy M87, is shown in three views here. Despite its mbad of 6.6 trillion soles, it is more than 2000 times farther than Sagittarius A *. The EHT can solve it or not, but if the Universe is kind, we will not only obtain an image, but we will also learn if the X-ray emissions give us accurate mbad estimates for the black holes or not.

Superior, optical, Hubble / NASA / Wikisky space telescope; bottom left, radio, NRAO / Very Large Array (VLA); bottom right, X-ray, NASA / Chandra X-ray telescope

Finally, we have seen a lot of other observation signatures, like & nbsp; the & nbsp; direct detection of gravitational waves from inspiring and fused black holes, the creation of a black hole directly from direct collapse events and fusions of neutron stars, and the turning on and off of quasars, blazars and microquasars, which are believed to be caused by black holes of mbades and variable orientations.

Upon entering the great revelation of the Horizon Telescope of the Event, we have every reason to believe that black holes exist, are consistent with General Relativity and are surrounded by matter, which accelerates and emits radiation that we should be able to detect.

Artistic impression of an active galactic nucleus. The supermbadive black hole in the center of the accretion disk sends a narrow stream of high-energy matter into space, perpendicular to the disk. A fire about 4 billion light years away is the source of many of the higher energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Only the matter that is outside the black hole can come out of the black hole; Matter from within the event horizon can never escape.

DESY, Science Communication Lab

The great advance of the Event Horizon Telescope will be the ability to finally resolve the event horizon itself. & Nbsp; From that region, there should not be matter, and & nbsp; Radiation should not be issued. There must be sSubtle intrinsic effects to black holes. which are observable with this telescope, including the fact that the more stable and stable circular orbit should be approximately three times larger than the event horizon itself, and the radiation should be emitted around the event horizon, due to the presence of accelerated matter.

There are many questions that the first direct image of the event horizon of a black hole should be ready to respond, and you can consult what we can potentially learn here. But the biggest breakthrough is this: it will test the predictions of General Relativity in a completely new way. If our understanding of gravity needs to be reviewed near black holes, this observation will show us the way.

Two of the possible models that can be successfully adjusted to the data of the telescope of the event horizon until the date of 2018. Both show an asymmetric decentralized event horizon that has been extended with respect to the Schwarzschild radius, in line with the predictions of the General Relativity of Einstein. A full image has not yet been published to the general public, but it is expected by April 10, 2019.

R.-S. Lu et al, ApJ 859, 1

For hundreds of years, humanity has been waiting for black holes to exist. Throughout our lives, we have compiled a whole series of tests that point not only to their existence, but to a fantastic agreement between their expected theoretical properties and what we have observed. But perhaps the most important prediction of all & nbsp; the existence and the properties of the event horizon & nbsp; never been tested directly.

With simultaneous observations of hundreds of telescopes around the world, scientists have finished reconstructing an image, based on real data, of the largest black hole seen from Earth: the monster of 4 million solar mbades at the center of the Way Milky What we will see & nbsp; On April 10, it will confirm General Relativity or it will make us reconsider everything we believe about gravity. Eager for anticipation, the world now waits.

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A very curved illustration of spacetime, outside the event horizon of a black hole. As you get closer and closer to the location of the mbad, the space becomes more severely curved, which eventually leads to a location from which not even light can escape: the event horizon. The radius of that location is established by the mbad of the black hole, the speed of light and the laws of General Relativity only.

Pixabay JohnsonMartin user

For hundreds of years, physicists have hypothesized that the Universe should contain black holes. If enough matter accumulates in a volume of space small enough, the gravitational attraction will be so strong that nothing in the Universe Without particles, without antiparticles, not even with light. You can escape. They are predicted by Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity, and astrophysicists have observed many candidate objects that are consistent with black holes and not with other explanations.

But we have never before seen the event horizon: the unique characteristic signature of black holes, of the dark region where nothing can escape. On April 10, 2019, the collaboration of Event Horizon Telescope will launch its first image of such event horizon. This is what we know at this moment, the eve of this monumental discovery.

The black hole in the center of the Milky Way, along with the real and physical size of the event horizon represented in white. The visual extension of the darkness will appear to be 250-300% as large as the event horizon itself.

Ute Kraus, physical education group Kraus, Universität Hildesheim; background: Axel Mellinger

Black holes are an inevitable consequence, at least in theory, of having a speed limit in your Universe. Einstein's theory of General Relativity, which links the fabric of space-time with matter and energy present in the Universe, also contains an integrated relationship between how matter and energy move through space-time. The greater your movement through space, the less your movement will be through time, and vice versa.

But there is a constant that relates that movement: the speed of light. In General Relativity, the physical size of the predicted event horizon, the size of the region from which nothing can escape, is established by the mbad of the black hole and the speed of light. If the speed of light were faster or slower, the predicted size of the event horizon would be reduced or increased, respectively. If the light moved infinitely fast, there would be no event horizon.

LIGO and Virgo have discovered a new population of black holes with mbades that are larger than what had been seen before with x-ray studies alone (purple). This graph shows the mbades of the ten reliable binary fusions of black holes detected by LIGO / Virgo (blue), together with the fusion of a neutron and neutron star (orange). LIGO / Virgo, with the update in sensitivity, should detect multiple mergers every week starting in April.

LIGO / VIrgo / Northwestern Univ./Frank Elavsky

Astrophysically, black holes are surprisingly easy to create. Only in our galaxy, the Milky Way, there are likely to be hundreds of millions of black holes. At present, we believe that there are three mechanisms capable of forming them, although there may be more.

1. The death of a mbadive star., where the nucleus of a star much heavier than our Sun, rich in heavy elements, collapses under its own gravity. When there is not enough external pressure to counteract the internal gravitational force, the core implodes. The explosion of the resulting supernova leads to a central black hole.

The photos visible / close to the Hubble IR show a mbadive star, approximately 25 times the mbad of the Sun, which has disappeared from existence, without supernova or other explanation. The direct collapse is the only reasonable explanation of the candidate.

NASA / ESA / C. Kochanek (OSU)

2. The direct collapse of a large amount of matter., which can arise from a star or a gas cloud. If there is enough matter present in a single location in space, it can generate a black hole directly, without a supernova or similar cataclysm to trigger its creation.

3. The collision of two neutron stars., which are the densest and most mbadive objects that do not turn into black holes. Add enough mbad in one, either through accumulation or (more commonly) mergers, and a black hole may arise.

Artistic illustration of two neutron stars merging. The undulating grid of spacetime represents the gravitational waves emitted by the collision, while the narrow rays are the gamma-ray jets that fire just seconds after the gravitational waves (detected by astronomers as a gamma-ray burst). The consequences of the fusion of the neutron star observed in 2017 point towards the creation of a black hole.

NSF / LIGO / Sonoma State University / A. Simonnet

A little more than 0.1% of the stars that have formed in the Universe will eventually become black holes in one of these fashions. Some of these black holes will be only a few times the mbad of our Sun; Others can be hundreds or even thousands of times more mbadive.

But the most mbadive will do what all extremely mbadive objects do when they move through the mbad gravitational collection typical of star clusters and galaxies: they will sink in the center, through the astronomical process of mbad segregation. When multiple mbades are grouped in a gravitational well, lighter mbades tend to pick up more momentum and can be ejected, while larger mbades lose angular momentum and accumulate in the center. There, they can accumulate matter, merge, grow and, eventually, become the supermbadive giants that we find today in the centers of galaxies.

The supermbadive black hole at the center of our galaxy, Sagittarius A *, shines brightly on X-rays every time matter is devoured. At other wavelengths of light, from the infrared to the radio, we can see individual stars in this innermost part of the galaxy.

X-ray: NASA / UMbad / D.Wang et al., IR: NASA / STScI

In addition, black holes do not exist in isolation, but in the disordered environment of space, which is filled with matter of various types. When matter approaches a black hole, there will be tidal forces in it. The part of any object that is closest to the black hole experiences a greater gravitational force than the part farthest from the black hole, while the parts that bulge on either side will feel a pinch toward the center of the object.

That said, this results in a set of stretching forces in one direction and compressive forces along the perpendicular directions, which causes the infal object to "spaghetti". The object will be torn in its constituent particles. Due to a series of physical and dynamic properties at play, this will cause matter to accumulate around the black hole in a form similar to a disk: an accretion disk.

An illustration of an active black hole, one that increases matter and accelerates a part of it outward in two perpendicular jets, is an excellent descriptor of how quasars work. Matter that falls into a black hole, of any variety, will be responsible for the additional growth in mbad and size of the black hole. However, despite all the misconceptions that are out there, there is no "suction" of external matter.

Mark A. Garlick

These particles that form the disk are charged and move in orbit around the black hole. When the charged particles move, they create magnetic fields, and the magnetic fields in turn accelerate the charged particles. This should result in a series of observable phenomena, including:

  • emitted photons of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, particularly on the radio,
  • flares that appear at higher energies (as in X-rays) that arise when matter falls into the black hole,
  • and jets of matter and antimatter that accelerate perpendicularly to the accretion disc itself.

All these phenomena have been seen for black holes of various mbades and orientations, giving even more credibility to their existence.

A large number of stars has been detected near the supermbadive black hole in the core of the Milky Way. In addition to these stars and the gas and dust that we found, we predict that there will be more than 10,000 black holes within a few light years of Sagittarius A *, but detecting them was difficult to achieve until early 2018. Solving the central black hole is a This task can only be promoted by the Telescope of the event horizon, and it can still detect its movement over time.

S. Sakai / A. Ghez / W.M. Keck Observatory / UCLA Galactic Center Group

In addition, we have observed the movements of individual stars and stellar remains around the candidates for black holes, which seem to orbit large mbades that have no viable explanations other than black holes. At the center of the Milky Way, for example, we have observed dozens of stars orbiting an object known as Sagittarius A *, which has an inferred mbad of 4 million suns and emits flashes, radio waves and displays positron signatures (a form of antimatter) being ejected perpendicular to the galactic plane.

Other black holes show many of the same signatures, such as the ultrambadive black hole at the center of the galaxy M87, which is estimated to weigh 6.6 billion solar mbades.

The second largest black hole seen from Earth, the one at the center of the galaxy M87, is shown in three views here. Despite its mbad of 6.6 trillion soles, it is more than 2000 times farther than Sagittarius A *. The EHT can solve it or not, but if the Universe is kind, we will not only obtain an image, but we will also learn if the X-ray emissions give us accurate mbad estimates for the black holes or not.

Superior, optical, Hubble / NASA / Wikisky space telescope; bottom left, radio, NRAO / Very Large Array (VLA); bottom right, X-ray, NASA / Chandra X-ray telescope

Finally, we have seen a lot of other observational signatures, such as the direct detection of gravitational waves from the inspiration and fusion of black holes, the creation of a black hole directly from direct collapse events and fusions of neutron stars , and the ignition. off and off quasars, blazars and microquasars, which are believed to be caused by black holes of varying mbades and orientations.

Upon entering the great revelation of the Horizon Telescope of the Event, we have every reason to believe that black holes exist, are consistent with General Relativity and are surrounded by matter, which accelerates and emits radiation that we should be able to detect.

Artistic impression of an active galactic nucleus. The supermbadive black hole in the center of the accretion disk sends a narrow stream of high-energy matter into space, perpendicular to the disk. A fire about 4 billion light years away is the source of many of the higher energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Only the matter that is outside the black hole can come out of the black hole; Matter from within the event horizon can never escape.

DESY, Science Communication Lab

The great advance of the Event Horizon Telescope will be the ability to finally resolve the event horizon itself. From within that region, there should be no matter, and no radiation should be emitted. There should be subtle intrinsic effects to the black holes that can be observed with this telescope, including the fact that the most stable and stable circular orbit should be approximately three times the size of the event horizon itself, and radiation should be emitted around said horizon. , due to the presence of accelerated matter.

There are many questions that the first direct image of the event horizon of a black hole should be ready to respond, and you can see what we can learn here. But the biggest breakthrough is this: it will test the predictions of General Relativity in a completely new way. If our understanding of gravity needs to be reviewed near black holes, this observation will show us the way.

Two of the possible models that can be successfully adjusted to the data of the telescope of the event horizon until the date of 2018. Both show an asymmetric decentralized event horizon that has been extended with respect to the Schwarzschild radius, in line with the predictions of the General Relativity of Einstein. A full image has not yet been published to the general public, but it is expected by April 10, 2019.

R.-S. Lu et al, ApJ 859, 1

For hundreds of years, humanity has been waiting for black holes to exist. Throughout our lives, we have compiled a whole series of tests that point not only to their existence, but to a fantastic agreement between their expected theoretical properties and what we have observed. But perhaps the most important prediction of all, that of the existence and properties of the event horizon, has never been tested directly before.

With simultaneous observations of hundreds of telescopes around the world, scientists have finished reconstructing an image, based on real data, of the largest black hole seen from Earth: the monster of 4 million solar mbades at the center of the Way Milky What we will see on April 10 will confirm General Relativity or it will make us rethink everything we believe about gravity. Eager for anticipation, the world now waits.


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