“The mission has 314 million miles of space and seven minutes to safely spread terror to the surface of Mars,” Lori Glaze, director of NASA’s Department of Planetary Sciences, said in a statement. “The fun really starts when we first see the landscape in the Jzero crater and we really start to realize the scientific reward in front of us.”
The Persistence and Ingenuity helicopter is safely tucked inside a protective aerosol capsule. The descent stage that helps land the rover is also located in this aerosol, which is connected to the cruise stage, or mission spacecraft.
The cruise phase is shaped by disk and solar power. It would cover more than 300 million miles to reach Mars.
However, while it is hovering on Mars, engineers on Earth will tell the spacecraft when to carry out improvised maneuvers to keep them on the right track on Mars, as well as its landing target. The ground team will also check on the equipment and subsystems present in the spacecraft.
About 45 days before landing on Mars, the spacecraft will enter the approach phase, with more improved maneuvers in the trajectory.
While hoping for a quiet journey to Mars, tenacity teams will prepare and train for the rover’s landing on Mars. The science team will prepare instructions for sending the rover as it uses its equipment on Mars.
The driver of the rover will also work with a model of the rover on earth to prepare for the journey of the fixture to the surface of the marshal.
It involves using the fixture on Earth to test hardware, drive it through the Mars Yard at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and make sure auto-navigation algorithms work, Heath Justice said, Robotic downlink leads and a rotor drivers on JPL.
‘Seven minute terror’
The one-way light time for radio signals to travel from Earth to Mars is approximately 10.5 minutes, which means that it takes seven minutes for a spacecraft to land on Mars, to assist or interfere with NASA teams on Earth Will be without
Members of the NASA team refer to it as the “Seven Minutes of Terror”. They tell the spacecraft when to start the EDL, (entry, descent and landing), and the spacecraft participates from there.
The spacecraft collides with the Martian atmosphere moving at a speed of 12,000 mph and has to go down to zero mph seven minutes later as the rover slowly descends to the surface.
About 10 minutes before entering the thin Martian atmosphere, the cruise stage is shed and the spacecraft is ready for a guided entry, where small thrusters on the aerosol help adjust its angle.
The space shield’s heat shield will withstand extreme heating of 2,370 degrees F 75 seconds after it enters the atmosphere.
Fortitude is targeting the 28-mile-wide ancient lake bed and river delta, the most challenging site yet to land a NASA spacecraft on Mars. Instead of being flat and smooth, the small landing site is lined with sand dunes, steep cliffs, rocks and small pits.
There are two upgrades to the spacecraft to navigate this difficult and dangerous site, called the Range Trigger and Terrain-Relative Navigation.
The range trigger will tell the 70.5-foot-wide parachute when the position of the spacecraft will deploy based on 240 seconds after entering the atmosphere. After the parachute deploys, the heat shield will separate.
The Terrain-Relative Navigation acts like a second brain for the Rover, which uses cameras to take pictures of the ground as it approaches rapidly and determines the safest place on the ground. According to NASA, it can move landing spots up to 2,000 feet.
The back shell and parachute are separated after the heat shield when the spacecraft is 1.3 miles above the Martian surface. The Mars landing engine, consisting of eight retrocards, will fire to slow the descent from 190 mph to about 1.7 mph.
Then, the Curiosity Rover landed what would be the famous sky crane maneuver. The nylon cords will be placed 25 feet below the rover on the descent stage. After the rover touches the martian surface, the cords will break apart and the descent stage will fly and descend to a safe distance.
On the surface of mars
After the rover takes off, Perseverance’s two-year mission will begin and go through a “checkout” period to ensure that it is ready.
The rover will deploy its mast and antenna, image its landing, conduct a “health check”, test movement and “flex” its hand for its equipment and conduct a miniature test drive. Fortitude will also release its belly pan, which provided a safe haven for the Ingenuity helicopter stationed there during cruising and landing.
The rover will also get a nice, flat surface to drop the Ingenuity helicopter so that it has space to use as a helipad for a possible five test flights over a 30-day period. This will occur within the first 50 to 90 years of the mission, or within the Martian days.
Once Ingenuity settles on the surface, Perseverance will move to a safe location a short distance away and use its cameras to watch Ingenuity’s flight.
After those flights, Perseverance will begin to search for evidence of ancient life, study the climate and geology of Mars and collect samples that will eventually return to Earth through planned future missions.