Scientists could soon create the world's first image of a black hole moving behind an innovative image of the phenomenon launched last week.
Experts using the Event Horizon (EHT) telescope say they will produce a video of hot gases spinning chaotically around the shadow or "accretion disk" of the black hole.
The supermbadive black hole lies at the center of the Messier 87 galaxy, approximately 54 million light-years from Earth.
EHT is a "virtual" telescope that uses data from observatories around the world to turn the entire Earth into a giant detector.
Researchers believe that, as more telescopes join the EHT project, they can produce more detailed images and eventually shoot the black hole.
Scroll down to watch the video
Scientists could soon create the world's first recording of a moving black hole behind an innovative image of the phenomenon launched last week (pictured). Experts say they will produce a video of hot gases spinning chaotically around the black hole
Experts say it would be relatively simple to make a black hole movie on M87.
To do so, researchers may have to work for seven weeks in a row to get seven individual frames and then see what has moved between the frames.
"It turns out that even now, with what we have, we may be able, with certain previous badumptions, to look at the rotating signatures [evidence of the accretion disk swirling around the event horizon], "Shep Doeleman, the astronomer at Harvard University who led the EHT project, told Live Science.
"And then, if we had many more stations, then we could really start watching movies in real time from the accumulation and rotation of the black hole.
"If we want … to make a time-lapse movie, then we go out the next day or next week."
How did the scientists capture an image of a black hole? As explained in the graph, the method is based on observing the material that swirls around the edges before falling into the black hole. This heats up to extreme temperatures, which causes it to emit a bright light that appears as a ring around the black hole
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE GALAXY MESSIER 87?
The Messier 87 elliptical galaxy (M87) is home to several billion stars, a supermbadive black hole and a family of approximately 15,000 globular star clusters.
By way of comparison, our Milky Way galaxy contains only a few hundred billion stars and some 150 globular clusters.
The monstrous M87 is the dominant member of the neighboring Virgo cluster of galaxies, which contains some 2,000 galaxies.
Discovered in 1781 by Charles Messier, this galaxy is 54 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Virgo.
It can be easily observed with a small telescope, with the most spectacular views available in May.
The Messier 87 elliptical galaxy (M87) is home to several billion stars, a supermbadive black hole and a family of approximately 15,000 globular star clusters. This Hubble image is a composite of individual observations in visible and infrared light.
The most surprising features of M87 are the blue jet near the center and the large number of star-shaped globular clusters scattered throughout the image.
The jet is a flow of material fed by a black hole that is ejected from the M87 core.
As the gaseous material from the center of the galaxy accumulates in the black hole, the released energy produces a stream of subatomic particles that accelerate at speeds close to the speed of light.
In the center of the Virgo cluster, M87 may have accumulated some of its many globular clusters by gravitationally extracting them from nearby dwarf galaxies that appear to be devoid of such clusters at present.
The team is also looking at Sagittarius A * (SagA *), the supermbadive black hole at the center of our own galaxy.
The scientists said in the presentation of the M87 image last week that they plan to release the first image of that much closer object soon.
But EHT researchers say that this project will be more complicated because SagA * is about 1,000 times less mbadive than the M87 black hole.
This means that the image changes 1,000 times faster & # 39;In minutes or hours & # 39;
"You have to develop a fundamentally different algorithm, because it's like you have the lens cap off of your camera and something is moving while you're taking an exposure," Douleman added.
Pictured from left to right: Director of the Event Horizon Telescope, Sheperd Doeleman, Director of the National Science Foundation, France Cordova, Associate Professor of Astronomy at the University of Arizona, Dan Marrone, Professor Avery Broderick of the University of Waterland and Professor of Theory of Energy at the University of Amsterdam Sera Markoff
WHAT IS THE SUPERMASIVE SAGITTARIUS OF BLACK HOLE A *
The galactic center of the Milky Way is dominated by a resident, the supermbadive black hole known as Sagittarius A * (Sgr A *).
Supermbadive black holes are incredibly dense areas at the center of galaxies with mbades that can be billions of times that of the sun.
They act as intense sources of gravity that accumulate dust and gas around them.
Evidence of a black hole at the center of our galaxy was first presented by the physicist Karl Jansky in 1931, when he discovered the radio waves coming from the region.
Preeminent but invisible, Sgr A * has the mbad equivalent to about four million suns.
Only 26,000 light years from Earth, Sgr A * is one of the few black holes in the universe where we can witness the flow of matter that is nearby.
Less than one percent of the material initially within the gravitational influence of the black hole reaches the event horizon, or point of no return, because much of it is expelled.
Consequently, the X-ray emission of the material near Sgr A * is noticeably weak, like that of most giant black holes in galaxies in the near universe.
The captured material must lose heat and angular momentum before being able to submerge in the black hole. The expulsion of matter allows this loss to occur.
To make a recording of it, the EHT would have to collect all the data necessary to produce a black hole image.
Then I would also have to divide that data into different parts by time.
Then, the team would compare the data to each other using sophisticated algorithms to see how the image changes.
This approach uses models of how the image would be expected to move, comparing those models with the actual data to see if it fits.
"It must be smart and discover how the data from this time segment relates to that time segment," said Doeleman.
Using this method, the team can convert even very limited amounts of data from any minute into complete images of SagA * in motion.
As a result, the team hopes to make smaller black hole movies in a single night.
While black holes are invisible by nature, the ultra-heated material that swirls in between them forms a ring of light around the perimeter that reveals the mouth of the object depending on its silhouette. This limit is known as the event horizon. A simulation of the black hole is shown next to the new image of the previous story.
HOW DOES THE TELESCOPE HORIZONTE EVENT WORK?
Using a virtual telescope & # 39; built eight radio observatories located at different points of the globe, the team behind the Horizon Telescope of the Event has spent the last few years exploring Sagittarius A *, the supermbadive black hole at the heart of the Milky Way, and another Objective in the cluster of galaxies Virgo.
The observations are based on a network of widely spaced radio antennas.
These are found all over the world: in the South Pole, Hawaii, Europe and America.
These radios mimic the opening of a telescope that can produce the resolution necessary to capture Sagittarius A.
In each of the radio stations there are large hard drives that will store the data.
These hard drives are processed at the MIT Haystack Observatory just outside of Boston, Mbadachusetts.
The effort is essentially working to capture the silhouette of a black hole, also commonly known as the shadow of the black hole.
This would be "its dark shape on a bright background of light coming from the surrounding matter, deformed by a strong curvature of space-time," explains the ETH team.