Scientists detect strange new physics signs in the background radiation of the universe – tech2.org

Scientists detect strange new physics signs in the background radiation of the universe


In all known space, between stars and galaxies, there is an extremely misty glow, a remnant of the dawn of the universe. It is the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the first light that can travel through the universe when it cooled down enough for ions and electrons to coalesce into atoms, about 380,000 years after the Big Bang.

But now scientists have discovered something strange about CMB. A new measurement technique has revealed signs of a bend in light – something that may indicate a violation of the symmetry symmetry indicated in physics outside the standard model.

According to the standard model of physics, if we flip the universe, as if it is a mirror reflection of ourselves, then the laws of physics can be firm. Submatic interactions must occur in the mirror exactly as they do in the real universe. This is called parity symmetry.

As far as we have been able to measure so far, there is only one fundamental interaction that breaks symmetry; It is the weak contact between sub-atomic particles that is responsible for radioactive decay. But finding another place where homogeneity breaks symmetry may possibly lead us beyond the standard model to new physics.

And two physicists – Yuto Minami of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan; Aichiro Komatsu – from the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany and the Universe Physics and Mathematics for Mathematics in Japan – believe they have found signs of this in the CMB’s polarization angle.

Polarization occurs when light is dispersed, causing its waves to propagate at a certain orientation.

Reflective surfaces like glass and water polarize the light. You are probably familiar with polarized sunglasses, designed to block certain inclinations to reduce the amount of light reaching the eye.

Even water and particles in the atmosphere can scatter and polarize light; A rainbow is a good example of this.

For the first 380,000 years the early universe was so hot and dense that atoms could not exist. Protons and electrons were flying around as an ionized plasma, and the universe was opaque like a thick smoke fog.

Only once the universe cooled enough for those protons and electrons did the space clear for a neutral gas to combine into hydrogen atoms, allowing the photons to travel independently.

As the ionized plasma converts to a neutral gas, the photons are shattered by electrons, causing the CMB to become polarized. The polarization of the CMB can tell us a lot about the universe. Especially if it is rotated at an angle.

This angle, described as Β, may indicate CMB interactions with dark matter or dark energy, mysterious inward and outward forces that appear to dominate the universe, but which we are unable to detect directly.

Cow dung beta(Y. Minami / KKK)

“If dark matter or dark energy cosmic microwaves interact with background light that violates symmetry symmetry, we can find its signature in polarization data,” Minami explained.

The problem with identifying in with no certainty lies in the technique used to detect the polarization of the CMB. The Planck satellite of the European Space Agency, which released CMB’s most up-to-date observations in 2018, is equipped with polarization-sensitive detectors.

But unless you know how these detectors are oriented relative to the sky, it is impossible to tell exactly what you are seeing, or a rotation in the detector that simply looks like it looks.

The team’s technique relies on studying a different source of polarized light and comparing the two to remove the false signal.

“We developed a new method for determining artificial rotation using polarized light emitted from dust in our Milky Way,” Minami said. “With this method, we have achieved an accuracy that is double that of previous work, and finally able to measure”. “

Milky Way sources of radiation are much closer than CMBs, so they are not affected by dark matter or dark energy. Any rotation in polarization, therefore, should only result in one rotation in the detector.

CMB is affected by both β and artificial rotation – so if you subtract the artificial rotation seen in Milky Way sources from CMB comments, you should only be left with a by.

Using this technique, the team determined that certain is non-zero, with 99.2 percent certainty. It sounds like too much, but it is still not enough to claim the discovery of new physics. For that, a confidence level of 99.99995 percent is required.

But it certainly suggests that the CMB is worth studying more closely.

“It is clear that we have not yet found definitive evidence for new physics; higher statistical significance is needed to confirm this indication,” said astrophysicist Ichiro Komatsu of the Kweli Institute of Physics and Mathematics of the Universe.

“But we are excited because our new method finally allowed us to make this ‘impossible’ measurement, which may point towards new physics.”

The research has been published in Physical review letter.

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