He is the final residing African head of state who’s been in energy constantly since his nation’s independence, however he isn’t fairly the continent’s longest-serving present chief. Still, when longtime Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos stepped apart in September after 38 years of rule, Mugabe rose to No. 2 on the checklist.
Many long-serving African leaders have been buoyed by their suppression of opposition and abolished or manipulated time period limits. Mugabe and 5 others have been in cost for greater than 30 years. They are:
In energy since: August three, 1979, when he toppled his uncle — an autocratic president who led the nation after it gained independence from Spain in 1968 — in a army coup.
Current election guidelines: The president is elected in a majority well-liked vote for seven-year phrases, although presidential and legislative elections since 1996 “have generally been labeled as flawed,” the CIA World Factbook says.
“The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has placed legal and bureaucratic barriers that prevent political opposition,” in response to the CIA publication.
Obiang final claimed victory in an April 2016 election, reportedly with 93.7% of the vote. Opposition members and human rights teams have questioned the election’s equity.
Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe) — 37 years
In energy since: April 1980, when his nation gained independence after he coordinated a guerrilla warfare in opposition to white colonial rulers. He first was prime minister, then took the presidency in 1987 — elected by the nationwide meeting — when a brand new structure created the workplace to interchange the prime minister’s workplace.
Current election guidelines: Five-year phrases, no time period limits. He has claimed victory in well-liked votes — typically extremely controversially — in 1990, 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2013. He had indicated he supposed to face for re-election in 2018.
He rose to energy as a freedom fighter, however shortly waged a marketing campaign of oppression to consolidate his place, extinguishing the political opposition by means of violent crackdowns, and has lengthy been accused of corruption and abuse of energy. In 2002, the EU and the US imposed focused sanctions on him and a few senior members of the ruling get together after widespread studies of human rights violations.
Paul Biya (Cameroon) — 35 years
In energy since: November 1982, when the then-prime minister succeeded a president who resigned.
Current election guidelines: Majority well-liked vote for seven-year phrases. Last elected in October 2011, reportedly with 78% of the vote. No time period limits.
Opposition candidates alleged fraud within the 2011 election.
“Despite slow movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands of President Paul Biya,” the CIA World Factbook says.
Denis Sbadou-Nguesso (Republic of Congo) — 33 years, nonconsecutive
In energy since: It’s difficult. He first was president from 1979 to 1992, when he was defeated in an election. He returned to energy in 1997 throughout a civil warfare, ultimately standing for and profitable a presidential election in 2002.
Current election guidelines: Majority well-liked vote. Up to a few five-year phrases, although a 2015 constitutional referendum allowed Sbadou-Nguesso to forgo the bounds, in response to Freedom House, a US nonprofit that promotes democracy.
The final election was in March 2016. After outcomes had been introduced, the United States authorities mentioned it was “profoundly disappointed by the flawed presidential electoral process in the Republic of Congo,” including that “widespread irregularities and the arrests of opposition supporters following the elections marred an otherwise peaceful vote.”
In a separate badertion in regards to the elections that 12 months, the US State Department criticized studies of a “media blackout during the polls, an imbalanced and restrictive media environment, significant disparity in access to state resources, a short timeframe for electoral preparations, and restrictions on freedoms of expression, communication, and badociation in the pre-election period.”
Yoweri Museveni (Uganda) — 31 years
In energy since: January 1986, when Museveni, a guerrilla chief and former protection minister, ousted a army regime.
Current election guidelines: Majority well-liked vote for five-year phrases, with no time period limits. Museveni held the presidency for 10 years earlier than he was chosen within the nation’s first direct presidential election in 1996. After his re-election in 2001, Parliament eliminated presidential time period limits in 2005. He was elected for a fifth time period in February 2016.
During that election, then-US Secretary of State John Kerry spoke with Museveni and “expressed his concern about the detentions of opposition candidate Kizza Besigye and harbadment of opposition party members during voting and tallying,” the US State Department mentioned. Kerry “also expressed concern about the Government of Uganda’s decision to block several popular social media and mobile money sites starting on Election Day.”
King Mswati III (Swaziland) — 31 years
In energy since: April 1986, upon turning 18, practically 4 years after the dying of his father, the earlier king.
No well-liked election for the king: Swaziland is Africa’s final remaining absolute monarchy, which is hereditary. The nation has an elected Parliament, and Mswati chooses a main minster from among the many elected members.