Neutron stars contribute very little, but making gold of something is found in research

Periodic table, naturally occurring elements up to uranium. The shading indicates stellar origin. Sincerely: Content: Chiki Kobayashi et al. Artwork: Sahm Keeley

Neutron star collisions do not create the amount of chemical elements already assumed, a new analysis of the evolution of the galaxy finds. Research also suggests that current models cannot explain the amount of gold in the universe – creating an astronomical mystery. Work has produced a new-form periodic table that shows the naturally occurring stellar origin from carbon to uranium.

All the hydrogen in the universe – including each of its molecules on Earth – was produced in the Big Bang, producing much helium and lithium, but not much else. The rest of the naturally occurring elements are formed by atomic processes occurring inside the wires. Which elements are actually lattices of mass, but they are all released into galaxies at the last moments of each star – explosively, in the case of really large ones, or as dense outflows, similar to solar wind. For people in the same orbit as the Sun. .

“We can think of stars as giant pressure cookers,” said Associate Professor Karakas of Australia’s ARC Center of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (Astro 3-D).

“The reactions that make up these elements also provide energy that keeps the stars shining for billions of years. As the stars age, they produce heavier and heavier elements as heat is produced inside them.”

Half of all the elements that are heavier than iron – such as thorium and uranium – were formed when neutron stars, superdances of the burnt sun, collided with each other. Long-attested until 2017, the collision of the neutron star was not confirmed. Now, however, the latest analysis conducted by Caracas and fellow astronomers Chiaki Kobayashi and Maria Lugaro suggests that the role of neutron stars would have largely been eliminated — and that another stellar process is entirely responsible. Producing most of the heavy elements.

Caracas said, “The neutron star merger did not create enough heavy elements in the early life of the universe, and they still do not, 14 billion years later.” “The universe did not make them fast enough for their presence in very ancient stars, and, overall, there is not enough collision going on around today to account for the abundance of these elements.”

Instead, the researchers found that heavier elements must be formed by a completely different kind of stellar phenomena – unusual supernovas that rotate at high speeds and produce strong magnetic fields. The discovery is one of several to emerge from his research, which has just been published Astrophysical Journal. His study is the first time the first origin of all naturally occurring elements from carbon to uranium has been calculated from first principles.

The new modeling, the researchers say, will drastically change the currently accepted model of how the universe evolved. “For example, we built this new model to explain all the elements at once, and found not enough silver but enough gold,” said Co-. The author is Associate Professor Kobayashi, from the University of Hertfordshire, UK.

“Silver is produced more, but gold is produced in the model compared to observations. This means that we may need to identify a new type of stellar explosion or nuclear reaction.” The study refines previous studies that calculate the relative roles of star mass, age, and order in the production of elements. For example, researchers established that stars about eight times smaller than the mass of the sun produce carbon, nitrogen, and fluorine, with half of all elements being heavier than iron. Around eight times the stars of the Sun’s mass, which also explode at the end of their lives as supernovas, produce many elements from carbon through iron, including most of the oxygen and calcium needed for life.

“Apart from hydrogen, there is no single element that can be formed from only one type of star,” Kobayashi explained.

“Half of the carbon is produced from low-mass stars, but the other half comes from supernovas. And half of the iron comes from the usual supernovas of larger stars, but the other half needs another form, called a Type IA supernova. Is. These are produced. In binary systems of low-mass stars. ”

Couples of gravitationally bound stars can, by contrast, turn into neutron stars. When they collide, the effect produces some of the heaviest elements found in nature, including gold.

In new modeling, however, the number is not simply adding.

“Even the most optimistic estimate of the frequency of neutron star collisions cannot account for the abundance of these elements in the universe,” Karkas said. “It was a surprise. It looks like spinning supernova with strong magnetic fields, the real source of most of these elements.”

Co-author Dr, who has held positions at the Konkoli Observatory in Hungary and Monash University in Australia. Maria Lugaro feels that the mystery of the missing gold can be solved very soon. “New discoveries are expected from nuclear facilities around the world, including Europe, America and Japan, currently targeting rare nuclei associated with the neutron star merger,” he said. “The properties of these nuclei are unknown, but they control the production of massive element abundances. The astronomical problem of the missing gold can actually be solved by a nuclear physics experiment.”

Researchers believed that future research could find that neutron star collisions are far more persistent than evidence so far, in this case re-contributing to elements that make up everything from mobile phone screens to fuel for nuclear reactors. Can be modified from.

However, at the moment, they pay very little money for their bangs.

The simulation of the dwarf galaxy reveals various avenues for strontium enrichment.

more information:
Astrophysical Journal (2020). DOI: 10.3847 / 1538-4357 / abae65

Provided by the ARC Center of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3D

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