The Sun’s corona – the outermost layer that can reach temperatures above one million degrees Celsius – is chemically very different from the rest of the star, despite being physically connected.
Astronomers have been unable to explain and prove this phenomenon for more than half a century, making it one of the permanent conundrums of astronomy.
Now, researchers have found the first observational evidence to characterize magnetic waves in the chromosphere – the sun’s middle layer – split-up plasma, forcing only charged ions into the coron and leaving neutral particles behind.
A paper published today from astronomers at University College London and the Italian Space Agency provides the first evidence to support this long-held theory.
Researchers have found the first observational evidence showing magnetic waves in the chromosphere – the sun’s middle layer – split plasma, forcing only charged ions into the coron and leaving neutral particles behind.
Researchers analyzed data from space telescopes in New Mexico to observe waves, as well as to observe the same part of the Sun.
Observed patterns were created using computer modeling and scientists found that the reflected waves in the chromosphere were magnetically linked to regions of abundant ionized particles in the corona.
Researchers write in their study published today in The Astrophysical Journal, ‘These results reflect a relationship between sunspot chromospheric activity and changes in coronal plasma composition.’
The theory of magnetic waves dividing the plasma and forcing ions to the corona was first postulated in the 1960s.
What causes the waves remains unknown, but scientists believe that they are generated by millions of small explosions in the volatile corona, known as nanofluors.
The study’s lead author, Dr. Deborah Baker told MailOnline, ‘Different chemical compositions of the inner and outer layers of the sun were first noted more than 50 years ago.
‘This discovery generated what is one of the long-standing questions in astrophysics.
‘The difference in structure is surprising, given that the layers are anatomically linked, and in the corona this substance originates in the innermost layer, the photofair.
‘Now, thanks to the unique combination of geo-based and space-based observations of the solar atmosphere, made almost simultaneously, it is possible to definitively detect magnetic waves in the chromosphere and add to the abundance of these elements in the corona. Which are not found in the inner regions of the Sun. ‘
Dr. from the Italian Space Agency in Rome. Marco Stangalini states that the findings hold true for other stars as well as the Sun.
He says, “By looking at our local laboratory, the Sun, we can improve our understanding of the universe. ”
The theory of magnetic waves dividing the plasma and forcing ions to the corona was first postulated in the 1960s. What causes the waves remains unknown, but scientists believe that they are generated by millions of small explosions in the volatile corona, known as nanofluors. Pictures, surface of the sun
Astronomers are more interested in the Sun’s corona than ever because of its role in making solar wind.
It is the solar wind, which carries ions 92 million miles from the Sun to the Earth, producing northern and southern lights.
As soon as these charged particles reach the Earth’s magnetic field, the most powerful at the poles, they release energy and it appears as a celestial light show on Earth, visible at high and low latitudes. .
However, when a steady stream of charged particles turns from the Sun’s surface into a deluge following a violent belt, it can impact fragile electrical systems and satellite-dependent industries.
Dr. Baker states, “Identifying the processes that shape the corona is important as we try to better understand the solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing out of the sun, which Can disrupt and damage satellites and infrastructure on Earth, ”Dr. Baker says.
‘Our new findings will help us analyze the solar wind and find out where it is coming from in the Sun’s atmosphere.’
The Campfire captures ‘On the Sun: Solar Orbiter from the 47 million miles away on the sun’s closest pictures’
The British-built European space agency Solar Orbiter has captured the closest images of the sun so far, flying between the orbits of Venus and Mercury, according to Britain’s space agency.
Stunning images taken by solar orbiters, while containing signs of mini solar flares 47 million miles above the surface of our host star, have been dubbed the ‘campfire’ by the scientists behind the probe.
Solar layers are brief bursts of high energy radiation from the sun’s surface and are millions of times smaller than normal flares from ‘campfire’ stars.
The images were captured in mid-June, while the solar orbiter was still in its testing phase, so the team says the images will become higher resolution as the probe gets closer to the sun.
At the closest approach to our star, the solar orbiter would be 26 million miles above the Sun’s surface – which is 37 million miles from the Sun and it will reach there by the end of next year.
The most important discovery was the presence of these ‘campfires’, also known as ‘nano-flares’, which were observed on the surface of the Sun, astronomers explained – they are bright and dynamic explosions.