The device contained 400 grams, or nearly a pound, of high explosives and 2.2 kilograms, or about five pounds, of shrapnel, the court was told, but Mr. Hbadan argued that he was "safe" from that the bomb does not explode.
After testing a sample, Mr. Hbadan said, he thought that the device "will simply burn" and that the prospect of killing someone never crossed his mind.
But during the trial, the victims described their hair catching fire and their clothes began to melt on their bodies while the intense heat consumed the subway car.
Mr. Hbadan was arrested by the police the day after the attack in the port of Dover. I had been living with adoptive parents in Surrey, not far from London, and was studying at a local university, with the ambition of becoming a wildlife photographer.
When he arrived in Britain in October 2015, Mr. Hbadan stated that he had been forced to train "kill" by the Islamic State. During his trial, however, he said he had never had contact with the group and had invented the story to help with his asylum application.
Born in Baghdad, Hbadan told the court that his mother had died when he was young and his father, a taxi driver, died in an explosion in 2006.
Prosecutors argued that Mr. Hbadan blamed the Western intervention in Iraq for the death of his father, and that anger had motivated the attack. The court heard that Mr. Hbadan had told one of his teachers that he believed he had "a duty to hate Great Britain."
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