On Wednesday, lawyers from Facebook, Twitter, and
Google are appearing before the Senate Intelligence Committee
and House panel, answering questions about Russia-linked
election meddling in the US.
The first hearing begins at 9:30am ET. The second
hearing begins at 2pm ET.
Top lawyers from Facebook, Twitter, and Google are testifying
before the Senate Intelligence Committee and House of
Representatives on Wednesday. They were also
grilled on Tuesday over exactly what they knew and
when they knew it.
The first Wednesday hearing, where general council for Facebook,
Twitter, and Google will appear before the Senate Intelligence
Committee, kicks off at 9:30 am ET.
Facebook’s general council, Colin Stretch, will be representing
Facebook. Sean Edgett will be representing Twitter as
its acting general council. Kent Walker, one of Google’s
general councils who reports into Google CEO Sundar Pichai, will
be representing Google.
The second hearing of the day kicks off at 2:00 pm ET, as top
lawyers from Facebook, Twitter, and Google appear before Congress
and the House panel investigating election interference.
You’ll be able
to watch the 2 PM hearing live here.
For a full recap on Tuesday’s hearing, where Facebook’s general
council, Colin Stretch, admitted “there were signals we
Senate Intel Committee Vice Chairman Sen. Mark Warner began
Wednesday’s hearing with some prepared remarks, stressing that
“not one of us is doing enough to stop” Russian operatives from
hijacking the “national conversation” in an attempt to “make
In this age of social media, you can’t afford to waste too
much time – or too many characters – in getting the point across,
so I’ll get straight to the bottom line.
Russian operatives are attempting to infiltrate and
manipulate American social media to hijack the national
conversation and to make Americans angry, to set us against
ourselves and to undermine our democracy. They did it
during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign. They are still doing
it now. And not one of us is doing enough to stop
That is why we are here today.
In many ways, this threat is not new. Russians have been
conducting information warfare for decades.
But what is new is the advent of social media tools with the
power to magnify propaganda and fake news on a scale that was
unimaginable back in the days of the Berlin Wall. Today’s
tools seem almost purpose-built for Russian disinformation
Russia’s playbook is simple, but formidable. It works
Disinformation agents set up thousands of fake accounts,
groups and pages across a wide array of platforms.
These fake accounts populate content on Facebook, Instagram,
Twitter, YouTube, Reddit, LinkedIn, and others.
Each of these fake accounts spend months developing networks
of real people to follow and like their content, boosted by tools
like paid ads and automated bots. Most of their real-life
followers have no idea they are caught up in this
These networks are later utilized to push an array of
disinformation, including stolen emails, state-led propaganda
(like RT and Sputnik), fake news, and divisive
The goal here is to get this content into the news feeds of
as many potentially receptive Americans as possible and to
covertly and subtly push them in the direction the Kremlin wants
them to go.
As one who deeply respects the tech industry and was involved
in the tech business for twenty years, it has taken me some time
to really understand this threat. Even I struggle to keep
up with the language and mechanics. The difference between
bots, trolls, and fake accounts. How they generate Likes,
Tweets, and Shares. And how all of these players and
actions are combined into an online ecosystem.
What is clear, however, is that this playbook offers a
tremendous bang for the disinformation buck. With just a
small amount of money, adversaries use hackers to steal and
weaponize data, trolls to craft disinformation, fake accounts to
build networks, bots to drive traffic, and ads to target new
audiences. They can force propaganda into the mainstream
and wreak havoc on our online discourse. That’s a big
return on investment.
So where do we go from here?
It will take all of us – the platform companies, the United
States government, and the American people – to deal with this
new and evolving threat.
Social media and the innovative tools each of you have
developed have changed our world for the better. You have
transformed the way we do everything from shopping for groceries
to growing our small businesses. But Russia’s actions are
further exposing the dark underbelly of the ecosystem you have
created. And there is no doubt that their successful
campaign will be replicated by other adversaries – both nation
states and terrorists – that wish to do harm to democracies
around the globe.
As such, each of you here today needs to commit more
resources to identifying bad actors and, when possible,
preventing them from abusing our social media
Thanks in part to pressure from this Committee, each company
has uncovered some evidence of the ways Russians exploited their
platforms during the 2016 election.
For Facebook, much of the attention has been focused on the
paid ads Russian trolls targeted to Americans. However,
these ads are just the tip of a very large iceberg. The
real story is the amount of misinformation and divisive content
that was pushed for free on Russian-backed Pages, which then
spread widely on the News Feeds of tens of millions of
According to data Facebook has provided, 120 Russian-backed
Pages built a network of over 3.3 million real people. From
these now-suspended Pages, 80,000 organic unpaid posts reached an
estimated 126 million real people. That is an astonishing
reach from just one group in St. Petersburg. And I doubt
that the so-called Internet Research Agency represents the only
Russian trolls out there. Facebook has more work to do to
see how deep this goes, including looking into the reach of the
IRA-backed Instagram posts, which represent another 120,000
pieces of content.
The anonymity provided by Twitter and the speed by which it
shares news makes it an ideal tool to spread disinformation.
According to one study, during the 2016 campaign, junk news
actually outperformed real news in some battleground states in
the lead-up to Election Day. Another study found that
bots generated one out of every five political messages posted on
Twitter over the entire presidential
I’m concerned that Twitter seems to be vastly
under-estimating the number of fake accounts and bots pushing
disinformation. Independent researchers have estimated that
up to 15% of Twitter accounts – or potentially 48 million
accounts – are fake or automated. Despite evidence of
significant incursion and outreach from researchers, Twitter has,
to date, only uncovered a small percentage of that
activity. Though, I am pleased to see that number has been
rising in recent weeks.
Google’s search algorithms continue to have problems in
surfacing fake news or propaganda. Though we can’t
necessarily attribute to the Russian effort, false stories and
unsubstantiated rumors were elevated on Google Search during the
recent mbad shooting in Las Vegas. Meanwhile, YouTube has
become RT’s go-to platform. You have also now uncovered
1100 videos badociated with this campaign. Much more of
your content was likely spread through other
It is not just the platforms that need to do more. The
U.S. government has thus far proven incapable of adapting to meet
this 21st century challenge. Unfortunately, I believe this
effort is suffering, in part, because of a lack of leadership at
the top. We have a President who remains unwilling to
acknowledge the threat that Russia poses to our democracy.
President Trump should stop actively delegitimizing American
journalism and acknowledge and address this real threat posed by
Congress, too, must do more. We need to recognize that
current law was not built to address these threats. I have
partnered with Senators Klobuchar and McCain on a light-touch
legislative approach, which I hope my colleagues with
review. The Honest Ads Act is a national security bill
intended to protect our elections from foreign influence.
Finally – but perhaps most importantly – the American people
also need to be aware of what is happening on our news feeds. We
all need to take a more discerning approach to what we are
reading and sharing, and who we are connecting with online. We
need to recognize that the person at the other end of that
Facebook or Twitter argument may not be a real person at
The fact is that this Russian weapon has already proven its
success and cost effectiveness. We can all be badured that
other adversaries, including foreign intelligence operatives and
potentially terrorist organizations, are reading their playbook
and already taking action. We don’t have the luxury of
waiting for this Committee’s final report before taking action to
respond to this threat to our democracy.
To our witnesses today, I hope you will detail what you saw
in this last election and tell us what steps you will undertake
to get ready for the next one. We welcome your
participation and encourage your continued commitment to
addressing this shared responsibility.
Chairman Richard Burr also gave an opening statement, welcoming
the general councils from Facebook, Twitter, and Google, and
noting that Wednesday’s hearing was a chance for them to “correct
the record,” noting that “my sense is that not all aspects of
those stories have been told accurately.”