In research published Wednesday in the journal Nature, scientists reported that they first detected nearly-ether particles called neutrinos, which could be detected by carbon-nitrogen-oxygen fusion, as the CNO cycle inside the Sun Is known.
It is a historical discovery that confirms theoretical predictions from the 1930s, and is being touted as one of the greatest discoveries in physics of the new millennium.
“It’s really a breakthrough for solar and stellar physics,” said Gioacchino Ranucci of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), one of the researchers on the project since it began in 1990.
Scientists used the ultrasensitive boraxino detector at INFN’s Gran Sasso Particle Physics Laboratory in central Italy – the world’s largest underground research center, deep beneath the Epinane Mountains, about 65 miles northeast of Rome.
The study of the Sun’s neutrinos was discontinued by the Borexino Project during decades of detection, and the first major nuclear reaction was revealed in which most stars use hydrogen to helium.
Almost all the stars, including our Sun, give enormous amounts of energy by fusing helium into hydrogen – effectively “burning” hydrogen, the simplest and most abundant element and main fuel source in the universe.
In the case of the Sun, 99 percent of its energy comes from proton – proton fusion, which can make beryllium, lithium, and boron before breaking them into helium.
But most stars in the universe are much larger than our sun: the red-giant Bethelues, for example, is about 20 times more massive and about 700 times wider.
Larger stars are also warmer, meaning that they are highly driven by CNO fusion, which fuses hydrogen into helium through the atomic nucleus, turning into an endless loop between carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.
The CNO cycle is the major source of energy in the universe. But it is difficult to place inside our relatively calm sun, where it has only 1 percent of its energy.
A giant boraxino detector appears for neutrinos that are closed during nuclear fusion at the sun’s core.
Neutrinos barely interact with anything, and so they are ideal for studying distant nuclear reactions – but they are also extremely difficult to detect.
Trillions of neutrinos from the sun pass through the boraxino detector every second, but it detects only dozens of them every day, as they seek the fierce glow of light in their dark 300-ton water tank.
Ranuki said the boraxino detector has spent decades measuring neutrinos from the sun’s main proton-proton chain reaction, but its CNO neutrinos have been very difficult to detect – the tail-story energy of the CNO cycle with only seven neutrinos Is seen in a day.
The explorer needed to make the detector more sensitive in the last five years, he said, protecting it from external sources of radioactivity so that the inner chamber of the detector had the most radiation-free space on Earth.
The result is the only direct sign of CNO fusion seen anywhere: “This is the first evidence that the CNO cycle is working on the Sun and the stars,” Ranuki said.
Gabriel Oraby Gann, a particle physicist at the University of California, Berkeley, called the discovery “a major stone”.
“This discovery took us one step closer to understanding the structure of our sun’s core, and the formation of massive stars,” she said.
Orebi Anthem is the author of a scientific article in nature about the new study, but he was not involved in the research.
He said that neutrinos naturally originate in nuclear reactions and pass through most cases without any effect, so they can be used to investigate otherwise inaccessible regions of the universe.
Because of this, many neutrino detectors are looking in the dark for their fleeting presence around the world, including the IceCube Observatory in the South Pole and the Super-Commiocande Detector in Japan.
It is proven that the Big Bang’s neutrinos may be responsible for some of the mysterious “dark matter” of the universe – giant invisible halts around stars and galaxies that make up about a quarter of its mass.
Orebi Gun stated that an asymmetry between neutrinos and their antiparticles could also explain the apparent lack of anti-matter in our universe and its dominance of the general case – in other words, just absolutely nothing, but why anything here. is.