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Five (more) fascinating facts about DUNE



The Deep Underground Neutrino experiment, designed to solve mysteries about small particles called neutrinos, grows day by day. More than 1000 scientists from more than 30 countries are collaborating on the project. The prototype construction of detectors is underway.

Engineers prepare to create space for the mammoth particle detector a mile away.

The international project is hosted by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory of the Department of Energy just outside Chicago – and has people deciphering engineering puzzles around the world. Here are five incredible engineering and design feats related to the construction of the largest liquid-argon neutrino experiment in the world.

1. The DUNE detector modules can shrink (and will) shrink by approximately half a foot (16.5 centimeters) when filled with liquid argon.

  The DUNE detector modules can (and will be reduced) about half a foot (16.5 centimeters) when filled with liquid argon.

Work of Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

Each of the large DUNE detector modules in South Dakota will be about 175 feet (58 meters) long, but everything has to be able to shrink comfortably when refrigerated. at 300 degrees Fahrenheit negative (184 degrees Celsius negative). The outer case that contains all the cold material and the components of the detector, also known as cryostat, will survive thanks to something similar to origami. It will be made of square panels with pleats on all sides, creating raised protuberances or corrugations around each square. As DUNE cools hundreds of degrees at liquid argon temperatures, the container can remain the same size due to those folds; corrugation provides additional material that can be extended as flat areas contract. But inside, the components will be in motion. Many of the main components of the detector inside the cryostat will be attached to the ceiling with a dynamic suspension system that allows them to move up to half a foot when cooled.

2. Researchers must design a new type of lens to resist the alluvium of particles it will take to make the most powerful energy neutrino beam in the world for DUNE.

<img src = "https://www.symmetrymagazine.org/sites/default/files/images/standard/Inline2_%20Five_more_fascinating_facts_about_DUNE_copy.jpg" width = "801" height = "679" alt = "Researchers must design a new type of lens to resist the alluvium of particles [19659006] Illustrations by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

Objectives are the material with which a beam of protons interacts to produce neutrinos.The Fermilab accelerator complex is upgrading with a new superconducting linear collider at the start of the accelerator chain to produce an even more potent proton beam for DUNE, which means that engineers need a more robust target that can withstand intense particle attack. light of current neutrinos in Fermilab use different objectives, one with rows of water-cooled graphite tiles called fins one meter long and the other with air-cooled beryllium e) But engineers are working on a new cylindrical rod cooled with helium gas to meet the highest intensity. How intense is it? The beam power of the new accelerator chain will be sent in short pulses with an instantaneous power of approximately 150 gigawatts, equivalent to feeding 15 billion 100-watt bulbs at the same time for a fraction of a second.

3. A single DUNE test detector component requires almost 15 miles of cable.

  A single DUNE test detector component requires almost 15 miles of cable.

Illustrations by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

Before Scientists Begin to Build Liquid – Argon-type neutrino detectors a mile below the surface in South Dakota, they want to be sure their technology will work as expected. In a ProtoDUNE test detector that is being built at CERN, they are testing parts called "flat anode assemblies". Each of these panels is made of nearly 15 miles (24 kilometers) of precision tensioned cable that has to be flat, within a few millimeters. The cable has a mere thickness of 150 microns, approximately the width of two hairs. This cable panel will attract and detect the particles produced when the neutrinos interact with the liquid argon in the detector, and hundreds will be needed for DUNE.

4. DUNE will be the highest voltage argon liquid experiment in the world.

  DUNE will be the highest voltage argon liquid experiment in the world.

Work of Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

The four DUNE now The detector modules, which will be located a mile below ground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, will use electrical components called solar cells. countryside. These will capture tracks of particles set in motion by an interaction of neutrinos. The different modules will present different designs of field cages, one of which has a target voltage of about 180,000 volts, approximately 1500 times more voltage than you would find in your kitchen toaster, while the other design has a capacity of 600,000 volts. This is far more than the previous liquid argon experiments such as MicroBooNE and ICARUS (now both part of Fermilab's short-line neutrino program), which typically operate between 70,000 and 80,000 volts. Building a high-voltage experiment requires design creativity. Even the "simple" things, from the protection against voltage surges and the design of bushings – the elegant plugs that carry this high voltage from the power supply to the detector – must be carefully considered and, in some cases, constructed from scratch.

5. Researchers expect the DUNE data system to trap about 10 neutrinos per day, but it must be able to catch thousands in seconds if a star becomes a nearby supernova.

 Researchers expect the DUNE data system to trap about 10 neutrinos per day, but it must be able to trap thousands in seconds

Illustrations by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

A supernova is a giant explosion that happens when a star collapses on itself. Most people imagine the dramatic explosion of light and heat, but much of the energy (about 99 percent) is transported by neutrinos that can then be recorded here on Earth in neutrino detectors. On a typical day, DUNE will typically see a handful of neutrinos from the world's most intense high-energy neutrino beam: around 10 per day at the beginning of the experiment. Because neutrinos interact very rarely with other matter; Scientists must send trillions to their distant detectors to catch even some. But a supernova releases so many neutrinos that the detector could see several thousand neutrinos in seconds if a star explodes in our Milky Way. A dedicated group within DUNE is working on the best way to quickly record the huge amount of supernova data, which will be approximately 50 terabytes in ten seconds.

In case you missed it, here are the first "Five fascinating facts about DUNE."

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