Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Drs. According to Anthony Fauci, vaccination may begin in the United States in the second half of December, starting with high-risk groups and being available to the rest of the population in the spring.
Here are some answers to common questions about coronavirus vaccines being developed to prevent Kovid-19.
Doesn’t it take years to get vaccinated to grow safely? How have these two developed in just 10 months?
The epidemic has galvanized the scientific community around the world, with researchers in dozens of countries telling groups how the virus works.
Operation Warp Speed has also created protocols to allow trials to proceed more quickly, and before the industrial-scale manufacture of vaccines has been revealed whether we know they will be effective. This means that we have millions of doses ready to use.
How effective is this vaccine?
In Modern’s trial, 15,000 study participants were given a placebo, a shot of saline that has no effect. Over several months, 90 of them developed Kovid-19. Another 15,000 participants were vaccinated and five of them developed Kovid-19.
Among those receiving placebo, 11 became seriously ill, but none of the participants who received the vaccine became seriously ill.
The head of the International Vaccine Institute, citing early data from biotech company Modern on its Kovid-19 vaccine candidate, said it was “proof of concept”, but cautioned that there are still early days in terms of follow-up efficacy .
Director General of the institute, Dr. Jerome Kim said, “I think this is very good news indeed and RNA vaccines are able to protect against infectious disease and this is again a good example that Kovid vaccines are a possibility.” CNN on Monday
“It would be really important to know what the efficacy is – not in two months, but at six and twelve o’clock,” Kim said.
There are still many unknowns as to how the new coronavirus vaccines will work in practice. It is not clear whether they will prevent infection completely or reduce the likelihood of serious illness. Even doctors do not know how long their security will last.
Vaccines have different efficacy rates. According to the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a full round of polio vaccine is 99% to 100% effective; Complete immunization is 80% to 90% effective against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, while the effectiveness of the flu vaccine varies from year to year.
How safe are vaccines, and are there any side effects?
Adhunik said that there is no significant side effect of its vaccine. A small percentage of those who received it experienced symptoms such as body aches and headaches. This is similar to what people may experience after a flu shot and is an indication that the vaccine is working to build immune immunity.
“They report no safety concerns – the main side effects are injection site pain, fatigue, muscle or joint pain and aches and headaches that began to occur more frequently after the second injection,” Dr. Penny Ward, a visiting professor in pharmaceutical medicine, King’s College London, told SMC.
“Clearly we still need to see the full scientific details in a publication to be able to judge the results independently.”
How do these vaccines work? I worry that they sound experimental.
Vaccines are usually the part of the virus that they protect, which blocks your immune system’s response.
Vaccines from both Modern and Pfizer use a new approach, which has not resulted in previously approved vaccines – although they have been studied in clinical trials for other viruses.
The two vaccines use a genetic code rather than any part of the virus, with a technique called messenger RNA, or mRNA. Vaccines deliver mRNA, which is a genetic recipe. In this case, the genetic recipe directs cells to form spike fragments that sit on top of the coronovirus. Once it is injected, the body’s immune system produces antibodies that recognize these spikes. If a subsequently vaccinated person is exposed to a coronavirus, those antibodies must be prepared to attack the virus.
Experts said that modern technology and Pfizer independently produced very similar results using the same technology, a belief that their results could be much easier and quicker for experts and other vaccines to produce.
Zoltan Kiss, a research associate at the future vaccine manufacturing hub, Imperial, said, “Using this technology, to combat any infectious disease in the future, by applying vaccines against both existing pathogens and currently unknown pathogens, the vaccine Candidates can be produced much faster in the future. ” College London, told SMC.
Other companies are developing vaccines using other techniques – the Oxford / AstraZeneca vaccine is made from a harmless modified chimpanzee virus, while the traditional route is to use inactive viruses.
Sign me up! When can I get it?
While Fauci said he expects the first Kovid-19 vaccination to begin in late December, there won’t be enough vaccines for everyone initially. Top priority groups, including health care workers, the elderly, and people with underlying medical conditions, will receive the vaccine first.
“I think everyone else will start getting vaccinated in late April,” Fauci said. “And it will go in May, June, July. It will take a few months to do that.”
The British government has asked the National Health Service, known as the NHS, to be ready to deploy a vaccine from early December.
What if I am old, pregnant or medically weak?
The study also included more than 11,000 participants from communities of color, representing 37% of the study population, which Modern described as similar to the diversity of the US population. It includes more than 6,000 participants who identify as Hispanic or LatinX, and more than 3,000 participants who identify as Black or African American.
Modern co-founder and chairman Nauber Afian said the company sees “no difference in results” among subgroups in its Kovid-19 vaccine trials.
Afenen said on CNN International Monday, “Modernity has actually slowed down trial recruitment a bit to make sure we had enough representation, and it turned out that there were 37% of the people in our tests.
“Usually, it seems that the vaccine performs widely across all population groups,” Afien said.
However, we do not know anything about groups that are not involved in testing such as children or pregnant women.
Charlie Weller, head of the vaccine in medicine, said, “These questions remain to be answered, how long will these vaccines remain effective, and whether these vaccines work in different populations across all age groups, breeds, and prior health conditions.” . ” Research charity Welcome.
“Only when testing is complete will we be able to assess the full efficacy and safety of any vaccine candidate.”
Will vaccines be mandatory? What happens if I decide not to get vaccinated?
If you decide to get vaccinated, it has wider implications. Not only will you not have protection against Kovid-19, but it may possibly make it harder to obtain community, or herd, immunity. This protects high-risk groups who may not be able to receive vaccinations.
According to the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, it has been estimated that the Kovid-19 vaccine would need to be accepted by at least 55% of the population to provide community immunity, and some scientists estimate that higher numbers Will also be required.