Science – Tech2.Org https://tech2.org Largest Nonprofit Digital Media. We work to Give a Voice to the powerless, to help Public & to Illuminate their lives. Thu, 21 Mar 2019 16:16:44 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.0.4 New species of different Andean tarantulas with a 'horn & # 39; only on his back – ScienceDaily https://tech2.org/new-species-of-different-andean-tarantulas-with-a-horn-39-only-on-his-back-sciencedaily/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 15:07:02 +0000 https://tech2.org/new-species-of-different-andean-tarantulas-with-a-horn-39-only-on-his-back-sciencedaily/

A species of new tarantula for science with a protuberance similar to a horn protruding from its back was recently identified in Angola, a largely unexplored country, located at the intersection of several afrotropic ecoregions.

The new arachnid is described in an article published in the National Geographic Okavango Wilderness Project, which aims to discover the biodiversity that has not been sampled throughout the Okavango basin in Angola, Namibia and Botswana, paving the way for sustainable conservation in area. in the open access journal African invertebrates by the team of doctors John Midgley and Ian Engelbrecht.

Although the new spider (Ceratogyrus attonitifer sp.n.) belongs to a group known as horned baboon spiders, the peculiar protuberance is not present in all these species. In addition, in the other species, where it is, the structure is completely sclerotized, while the Angolan specimens show a soft and characteristically longer "horn". The function of the curious structure remains unknown.

The extraordinary morphology of the tarantula also boosted the name of its species: C. attonitifer, which is derived from the Latin root attonit- ("astonishment" or "fascination"), and the suffix -fer ("bearer of" or "bearer"). It refers to the amazement of the authors before the discovery of the remarkable species.

"No other spider in the world has a similar foveal protuberance," the authors of the article comment.

During a series of surveys between 2015 and 2016, researchers collected several female specimens from the miombo forests in central Angola. To find them, the team usually spent the day locating burrows, often hidden among tufts of grass, but sometimes they find themselves in the open sand, and they dig specimens during the night. Interestingly, each time the researchers placed an object in the burrow, the spiders were quick and eager to attack it.

The indigenous peoples of the region provided additional information on the biology and lifestyle of the baboon spider. Although it has not been described and unknown by experts until very recently, the arachnid is called "chandachuly" among local tribes. Thanks to their reports, you can also take into account information about the behavior of the animal. The tarantula tends to attack insects and you can see the females enlarging existing burrows instead of digging yours. In addition, it is said that the poison of the species just described is not dangerous for humans, although there have been some deaths caused by infected bites that were not treated due to poor medical access.

In conclusion, the researchers point out that the discovery of Angola's novel baboon spider not only substantially extends the known distributive range of the genus, but can also serve as additional evidence of the country's immense endemic fauna:

"The general lack of biodiversity data for Angola is clearly illustrated in this example with the spider therapists, highlighting the importance of collecting specimens at the biodiversity frontiers."

In addition to the species described, the study produced specimens of two other potentially new species for science and range expansions for other genera. However, the available material is so far insufficient to formally diagnose and describe them.

Source of the story:

Materials provided by Pensoft Publishers. The original story is licensed under a Creative Commons license. Note: The content can be edited by style and duration.


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Opportunity did not respond to NASA's final call, and now we send it to us https://tech2.org/opportunity-did-not-respond-to-nasas-final-call-and-now-we-send-it-to-us/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:58:44 +0000 https://tech2.org/opportunity-did-not-respond-to-nasas-final-call-and-now-we-send-it-to-us/

The rover Opportunity leaves its landing site at Eagle Crater on Mars in 2004.
Enlarge / The rover Opportunity leaves its landing site at Eagle Crater on Mars in 2004.

POT

On Tuesday night, scientists from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory sent their latest data link to the Opportunity Rover on Mars. Through this connection, through the Deep Space Network, the American jazz singer Billie Holiday sang "I'll Be Seeing You", a song that closes with the lines:

I'll find you in the morning sun
And when the night is new.
I will be looking at the moon
But I will be watching you

The scientists waited to hear some response from their silent rover, which had been enveloped in a global dust storm last June, probably covering its solar panels in a fatal layer of dust. Since then, the team of scientists and engineers has sent more than 835 commands, waiting for the rover to wake up from its long sleep, that perhaps the winds on Mars could have blown some of the dust that covered the panels.

So on Tuesday night, they listened. They remembered But in the end, there was no response. Opportunity finally he would be declared dead in Sun 5352, as in five thousand, three hundred and fifty-two days on Mars. NASA is expected to make it official at 2 p.m. ET on Wednesday, when NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine and the head of the scientific division of the agency, Thomas Zurbuchen, call a press conference.

Opportunity It landed on Mars more than 15 years ago on Earth, on January 25, 2004. It's been so long since then. Facebook would not be created until a month later. YouTube would not get its first video uploaded for more than a year. George W. Bush was still in his first presidency. NASA's Cassini spacecraft had not yet reached the Saturn system.

And yet from that moment, Opportunity and his sister rover, Spirit, began to cover itself along the surface of Mars. Originally designed for 90-day lives, the rovers persisted. Spirit lasted until 2010, when its batteries could not prevent the critical components of the spacecraft from freezing.

It remained and continued

But Opportunity Stay in the middle of the hard ground. He traveled a staggering 45.16 kilometers through the red planet, a distance unmatched by any rover on the Moon or Mars. In 2016, as it climbed a hill, OpportunityThe inclination reached 32 degrees, the steepest for any rover on Mars.

The main task of the rover on Mars was to better understand the geology of the planet and understand the history of the water there. He succeeded In a discovery, for example, he found evidence of ancient hydrothermal vents that would have existed beneath a warm, shallow lake.

When the dust storm originally wrapped Opportunity Last year, mission scientists were hoping they could still recover the vehicle. Sure, he had to rule with only two instead of four wheels, and the rover showed his age. But even then, their batteries had retained 85 percent of their original capacity. But now, NASA scientists know that it will never emerge from the Valley of Perseverance, a feature carved into the edge of Endeavor Crater by water flowing in a distant time.

Spirit Y Opportunity will not be forgotten soon. Its success led NASA to the development of larger rovers, including Curiosity and next Mars 2020 rovers These two rovers carry much more scientific equipment and will explore more deeply the watery past of Mars and if it could ever have sustained life.

Perhaps, above all, Spirit Y Opportunity It will be celebrated for its stubborn survival in difficult conditions. One day, not in the movies, but in real life, human beings, with luck, will visit the sites of these two explorers to marvel at their raw technology, their dusty tombs and their historical achievements. This would be the best tribute of humanity to these first two Martian pioneers: that they were not the end of human exploration of Mars, but the beginning.


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Starburst in the nearby Orion Nebula: "10 billion times more powerful than the sun" https://tech2.org/starburst-in-the-nearby-orion-nebula-10-billion-times-more-powerful-than-the-sun/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:51:11 +0000 https://tech2.org/starburst-in-the-nearby-orion-nebula-10-billion-times-more-powerful-than-the-sun/

Posted on Feb 12, 2019

NASA's star flare

The eruption was thought to be caused by an interruption in an intense magnetic field that actively channels the material to a growing young star as it gains mass from its surroundings. The event occurred in one of the regions of star formation closest to Earth, the Orion Nebula. It lasted only a matter of hours.

The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), based in Hawaii, discovered the stellar flame 10 billion times more powerful than the sun's solar flares, a historical discovery that could trigger decades of questions about the origin of our own Sun and the planets in how these celestial bodies were born.

"A discovery of this magnitude could only have happened in Hawaii," said Dr. Steve Mairs, astronomer and principal investigator of the team that discovered the stellar explosion. "Using the JCMT, we studied the birth of nearby stars as a means to understand the history of our own solar system. Observing flares around younger stars is a new territory and is giving us key information about the physical conditions of these systems. This is one of the ways we are working to answer the most enduring questions of people about space, time and the universe that surrounds us. "

A huge black hole was discovered that formed the group of nebulae of Orion

The JCMT transient survey team recorded the 1,500-year-old flashes using the state-of-the-art high frequency radio technology of the telescope and sophisticated image analysis techniques. Identified by astronomer Dr. Steve Mairs, the original data were obtained using the JCMT supercooled chamber known as "SCUBA-2", which is kept at a cold temperature of -459.5 degrees Fahrenheit.

Located near the top of Maunakea, the JCMT is the largest and only telescope in the Northern Hemisphere capable of making this type of discovery. The observation of stellar flashes was made as part of a monthly monitoring program of researchers from around the world who use the JCMT to observe close to 1,000 nearby stars in the early stages of their formation.

The Daily Galaxy through the James Clerk Maxwell telescope


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A new study suggests the possibility of a recent underground volcanism on Mars https://tech2.org/a-new-study-suggests-the-possibility-of-a-recent-underground-volcanism-on-mars/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:45:39 +0000 https://tech2.org/a-new-study-suggests-the-possibility-of-a-recent-underground-volcanism-on-mars/

<a href = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/gfx/news/hires/2019/newstudysugg.jpg" title = "The South Pole of Mars, a new study in Geophysical research letters He argues that there must be an underground source of heat for liquid water to exist beneath the polar ice cap. Credit: NASA. ">
A new study suggests the possibility of a recent underground volcanism on Mars

The Martian south pole. A new study in Geophysical research letters He argues that there must be an underground source of heat for liquid water to exist beneath the polar ice cap. Credit: NASA.

A study published last year in the journal Science suggested that liquid water is present beneath the ice sheet at the south pole of Mars. Now, a new study in the magazine AGU. Geophysical research letters He argues that there must be an underground source of heat for liquid water to exist beneath the polar ice cap.

The new research does not take sides if liquid water exists. Instead, the authors suggest that recent magmatic activity, the formation of a magma chamber in the last hundreds of thousands of years, must have occurred below the surface of Mars so that there is enough heat to produce liquid water below the kilometer and medium. thick layer of ice. On the other hand, the authors of the study argue that if there was no recent magmatic activity below the surface of Mars, then there is probably no liquid water beneath the ice sheet.

"Different people can go different ways with this, and we are really interested in seeing how the community reacts," said Michael Sori, associate scientist at the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and a co-leader. Author of the new article .

The potential presence of the recent underground magmatic activity on Mars lends weight to the idea that Mars is an active planet, geologically speaking. That fact could give scientists a better understanding of how planets evolve over time.

The new study is intended to promote debate about the possibility of liquid water on Mars. The presence of liquid water on the Red Planet has implications for the possibility of finding life outside the Earth and could also serve as a resource for future human exploration of our neighboring planet.

"We believe that if there is life, it is likely that it should be protected in the subsoil of radiation," said Ali Bramson, a postdoctoral researcher at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona and co-principal author of The New Paper. "If magmatic processes are still active today, they may have been more common in the recent past and could provide a more widespread basal melt, which could provide a more favorable environment for liquid water and, therefore, perhaps life." .

Examining the environment

Mars has two giant ice sheets at its poles, both a couple of kilometers thick. On Earth, it is common for there to be liquid water beneath the thick layers of ice, and the heat of the planet causes the ice to melt where it meets the earth's crust.

In an article published last year in Science, scientists said they detected a similar phenomenon on Mars. They claimed that the radar observations detected evidence of liquid water at the base of the ice sheet at the south pole of Mars. However, the Science study did not address how liquid water could have gotten there.

Mars is much colder than Earth, so it was not clear what kind of environment would be needed to melt the ice at the base of the ice sheet. Although previous research has examined whether liquid water could exist at the base of the Martian ice caps, no one had examined the specific location where the Science study claimed to have detected water.

Outline of the case considered in the new study that causes a high local heat flow under the ice sheet of the south pole of Mars. The scheme shows a magma chamber of diameter D buried at a depth of H (to the center of the chamber) below the putative liquid water, creating a high heat flow Q as it cools. Credit: AGU / GRL / Sori and Bramson.

"We thought there was a lot of space to find out if [the liquid water] It's real, what kind of environment would you need to melt the ice in the first place, what kind of temperatures would you need, what kind of geological process would you need? Because under normal conditions, it should be too cold, "said Sori.

Looking for the heat

The authors of the new study first assumed that the detection of liquid water beneath the ice sheet was correct and then worked to determine what parameters were necessary for water to exist. They did a physical modeling of Mars to understand the amount of heat that comes out from inside the planet and if there could be enough salt at the base of the ice sheet to melt the ice. Salt significantly reduces the melting point of ice, so it was thought that salt could have caused it to melt at the base of the ice sheet.

The model showed that the salt alone would not raise the temperature high enough to melt the ice. Instead, the authors propose that it is necessary that there be additional heat coming from the interior of Mars.

A plausible heat source would be the volcanic activity in the subsoil of the planet. The authors of the study argue that magma from the deep interior of Mars rose to the surface of the planet about 300,000 years ago. It did not break the surface, like a volcanic eruption, but instead grouped into a magma chamber below the surface. When the magma chamber cooled, it released heat that melted the ice at the base of the ice sheet. The magma chamber still provides heat to the ice sheet to generate liquid water at present.

The idea of ​​volcanic activity on Mars is not new: there is a lot of evidence of volcanism on the surface of the planet. But most of the volcanic features on Mars are millions of years old, leading scientists to believe that volcanic activity below and above the surface of the planet stopped a long time ago.

The new study, however, proposes that there may have been more recent underground volcanic activity. And, if there was volcanic activity hundreds of thousands of years ago, there is a possibility that it is happening today, according to the authors of the study.

"This would imply that there is still an active magma chamber formation inside Mars today, and it's not just a cold and dead place," Bramson said.

Jack Holt, a professor at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, said the question of how water could exist beneath the ice sheet at the south pole occurred immediately after the Science paper was published, and The new article adds a significant restriction on the possibility of water there. He said that the debate in the planetary scientific community will probably increase the finding and will indicate that more research is needed to evaluate it.

"I think it was a great idea to do this kind of modeling and analysis because he has to explain the water, if it's there, and that's why it's really a critical piece of the puzzle," said Holt, who was not involved in the new research, but He spoke with the authors of the study before presenting the document. "The original paper just left it hanging in. There could be water there, but you have to explain it, and these guys did a very good job of saying what is needed and that salt is not enough."


Explore further:
Stock Photo: Radar footprints above the buried Mars lake

More information:
"Water on Mars, with a grain of salt: local heat anomalies are required today for the basal melting of ice in the south pole" Geophysical research letters (2019). agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.co … 10.1029 / 2018GL080985

Journal reference:
Geophysical research letters

Provided by:
American Geophysical Union


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Radar reveals a second crater of potential impact under the Greenland ice | Science https://tech2.org/radar-reveals-a-second-crater-of-potential-impact-under-the-greenland-ice-science/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:38:51 +0000 https://tech2.org/radar-reveals-a-second-crater-of-potential-impact-under-the-greenland-ice-science/

SCIENTIFIC VISUALIZATION STUDY OF NASA

By Paul Voosen

A few months after revealing an impact crater the size of Washington, DC, buried under the ice of northwest Greenland, a team of scientists discovered that it has company: a great depression 180 kilometers away that can also be an asteroid or a impact crater of a comet.

Several years ago, after researchers discovered the first crater that was hidden by the naked eye under the Greenland Hiawatha glacier, they began to track satellite records and radar profiles that penetrate the ice in search of other circular deformations. Profiles of NASA's IceBridge research flights revealed a 36-kilometer-wide, bowl-shaped depression surrounded by an edge, with a collection of raised peaks in the center that resemble the elevation to the left after that an asteroid or comet hits the surface of the Earth.

But unlike the Hiawatha crater, the basin has not yet thrown quartz crystals in shock, considered the best evidence of an extraterrestrial impact. The basin seems eroded and filled with ice older than the Hiawatha crater, which suggests that if it is a crater, it probably comes from a different impact, the researchers write this week. Geophysical research letters.

While this may seem an unlikely coincidence, other pairs of unrelated impacts have been found in Ukraine and Canada. And the cosmic collision rate needed to achieve such a coincidence is possible, given recent studies showing an increase in the bombardment of the Earth by extraterrestrial objects in the last 300 million years.


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Increasing temperatures, melting glaciers in Greenland can expose vast deposits of sand https://tech2.org/increasing-temperatures-melting-glaciers-in-greenland-can-expose-vast-deposits-of-sand/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:31:55 +0000 https://tech2.org/increasing-temperatures-melting-glaciers-in-greenland-can-expose-vast-deposits-of-sand/

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In a rare and positive turn with regard to climate change, Greenland could soon start exporting sediments that wash out into the sea as the island's ice sheet melts with rising global temperatures.

In a study published Monday in the journal Nature Sustainability, researchers discuss how the dynamics of the ice flow of the Greenland ice sheet (vast body of ice that covers approximately 80 percent of the country's surface) could affect the sediment production.

"The future acceleration in the glacial flow and the melting of the ice sheet will amplify the supply of sediments from Greenland to the coastal zone", the abstract states of the study, which also added that the world reserves of sand and gravel are slowly depleting , while demand has increased over the years "due to" urban expansion, infrastructure improvements and improved coastal protection in response to climate change. "

The world demand for sand was around 10 billion tons in 2017 and had a market value of $ 99.5 billion. The market value is projected at $ 481 billion in 2100, according to the findings. With an unemployment rate of 10 percent, Greenland has struggled to diversify its economy for years.

"The changing conditions of the Arctic help pave a sustainable path for the country towards economic independence, so that Greenland could benefit from the challenges posed by climate change," the summary adds.

If the entire Greenland ice sheet melted, it could raise the global level of the sea by about seven meters.

"You can think it [the melting ice] like a tap that pours sediment to the coast, "lead author Mette Bendixen, of the Arctic and Alpine Research Institute at the University of Colorado, told Reuters.

Although the extraction of sand and gravel could boost Greenland's economy, the study also notes that the Arctic island should take into account the risks associated with coastal mining.

"For Greenland to benefit from sand mining, we must raise awareness of the resource both locally and globally," Minik Rosing, a professor at the Danish Museum of Natural History at the University of Copenhagen who also participated in the study.

"The people of Greenland must be part of this, Greenland has rigorous resource legislation, and authorities and industry must work together to minimize the possible negative impacts of extraction on the environment."


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The wave device could deliver clean energy to thousands of homes https://tech2.org/the-wave-device-could-deliver-clean-energy-to-thousands-of-homes/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:26:47 +0000 https://tech2.org/the-wave-device-could-deliver-clean-energy-to-thousands-of-homes/

The wave device could deliver clean energy to thousands of homes

The scale tests are carried out in the FloWave facilities at the University of Edinburgh of a wave energy converter device that could provide power to thousands of homes. Credit: Universities of Trento, Bologna and Edinburgh and Scuola Superiore Sant & # 39; Anna Pisa

A wave energy technology is being developed that could help generate electricity at low cost for thousands of homes.

The device costs less than conventional designs, has fewer moving parts and is made of durable materials. It is designed to be incorporated into existing ocean energy systems and can convert wave energy into electricity.

Small-scale experiments in an ocean simulator show that a full-sized device could generate the equivalent of 500 kW, enough electricity for approximately 100 homes. Engineers say its design could be used in fleets of low-cost, easy-to-maintain structures in the sea within decades, to take advantage of the powerful waves in Scottish waters.

Engineers from the University of Edinburgh and from Italy developed their device, known as a dielectric elastomer (DEG) generator, using flexible rubber membranes. It is designed to fit on top of a vertical tube that, when placed in the sea, is partially filled with water that rises and falls with the movement of the waves.

When the waves pass through the tube, the water inside pushes the trapped air upward to inflate and deflate the generator at the top of the device. As the membrane is inflated, a voltage is generated. This increases as the membrane deflates and electricity is produced. In a commercial device, this electricity would be transported to the coast through submarine cables.

The wave device could deliver clean energy to thousands of homes

Schematic image of a wave energy converter device developed by researchers from the Universities of Trento, Bologna and Edinburgh and Scuola Superiore Sant & # 39; Anna Pisa. Credit: Universities of Trento, Bologna and Edinburgh and Scuola Superiore Sant & # 39; Anna Pisa

A reduced version of the system was tested at the FloWave facility at the University of Edinburgh, a circular tank 25 m in diameter that can reproduce any combination of waves and ocean currents.

The system could replace conventional designs, which involve complex air turbines and expensive moving parts.

The study, published in Proceedings of the Royal Society A, was carried out in collaboration with the Universities of Trento, Bologna and Scuola Superiore Sant & # 39; Anna Pisa in Italy. It was supported by the Horizon 2020 program of the European Union and Wave Energy Scotland.

Professor David Ingram, of the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, who participated in the study, said: "Wave energy is a potentially valuable resource on the Scottish coast, and developing systems that take advantage of this could play a role. valuable role in the production of clean energy for future generations. "


Wave energy technology creates economic limits.


More information:
Modeling and testing of a wave energy converter based on dielectric elastomer generators, Proceedings of the Royal Society A, rspa.royalsocietypublishing.or … .1098 / rspa.2018.0566

Provided by
University of Edinburgh

Citation:
The Wave device can deliver clean energy to thousands of homes (2019, February 12)
retrieved on February 13, 2019
from https://techxplore.com/news/2019-02-device-energy-thousands-homes.html

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Here is an intelligent idea. Build lunar bases in craters and then fill them with the Lunar Regolith https://tech2.org/here-is-an-intelligent-idea-build-lunar-bases-in-craters-and-then-fill-them-with-the-lunar-regolith/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:17:03 +0000 https://tech2.org/here-is-an-intelligent-idea-build-lunar-bases-in-craters-and-then-fill-them-with-the-lunar-regolith/

In the coming decades, multiple space agencies plan to send astronauts to the lunar surface. More than that, between the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Space Administration of China (CNSA) and Roscomos, there are multiple plans to build permanent outposts on the Moon. Perhaps the best known of these is ESA's plan to build an International Lunar Village,

As a spiritual successor to the International Space Station (ISS), this village would serve as a base for astronaut teams to conduct vital research and experiments. In recent years, some very interesting proposals have been presented as part of this plan, the latest of which comes from the European Astronaut Center (EAC) of ESA, where a team of students has developed a proposal for a sustainable lunar habitat .

The team leader is Angelus Chrysovalantis Alfatzis, a student of architectural engineering in his last year of studies at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece. He and his colleagues are just some of the many young researchers involved in Spaceship EAC, an ESA initiative designed to promote networking and collaboration with universities and research institutions across Europe.

Alfatzis and his colleagues developed their concept of a lunar base for the International NewSpace2060 Moon Launching Competition of 2018, a joint initiative with the Moon Village Association, which took place in the fall of 2018. Their entry was part of the Concepts and Architectural Problems category of Moon Village, where participants were encouraged to contribute ideas that work with existing technology and knowledge of Moon.

Alfatzis describes his architectural approach as "hyperlocal", which exploits the concept of in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to create sustainable living solutions for extreme environments in remote locations. While explaining his vision in a recent ESA press release:

"I always strive to find material and structural solutions according to the resources available on the site. At this time, my focus is to use the unprocessed lunar soil for the construction and architectural applications of this. "

This approach is in line with ESA's objectives to create the International Lunar Village, which requires the use of local resources not only to manufacture the base but also to meet the needs of its crew. Working together with others with the EAC initiative of the spacecraft, Alfatzis and his companions devised a concept called CORE (Crater Outpost for Research and Exploration).

The concept of architecture student Angelus Chrysovalantis Alfatzis for a lunar base. Credit: ESA

The CORE concept requires a modular design that uses the geography and the regolith of the Moon to protect against the elements. The team selected the South Pole Basin-Aitken as the site of its base, which offers the benefits of constant lighting, easy communications with the Earth and proximity to frozen water tanks.

Each module would consist of a prefabricated inflatable structure with its own life support system and a central tube. In this way, the modules could be arranged vertically, one on top of the other, allowing transport between them. As Alfatzis explained:

"Our idea is to transport the inflatable modules to the base of a small crater in the South Polar Region of the Moon, and then fill the cavity gradually with lunar soil, until the modules are effectively buried. The shielding meters will protect those inside the radiation. "Building inside a crater will also help to isolate due to the stable temperature of the underground environment of the Moon and provides protection against the threat of micrometeoroids."

The plan also requires that an air lock module be added to the top of the structure, which would then be covered with more control to provide protection. Inside this bag of air, the Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment would be stored and the lunar dust would be mitigated with the help of an electromagnetic cleaner, which would take advantage of the magnetic properties of the regolith to collect it.

A multi-dome lunar base is being built, based on the concept of 3D printing. Credits: ESA / Foster + Partners

All modules stacked vertically would be connected by an elevator located in the center. The first module next to the surface would house the waste treatment facilities and it would be where the astronauts prepare for the EVA and surface service missions. The intermediate module would be for research and communications, while the lower module would contain sleeping capsules, living rooms and a gym (also known as a "moon gym").

As Alfatzis pointed out in the video that was part of his team's entry, another benefit of the CORE design is the ability to expand it into adjacent craters. "The location chosen for the deployment allows the installation and configuration of more module modules, creating a true habitat village in nearby residences," he said. "The completion of the Moon village is an important step for sustainable and manned exploration."

Ultimately, CORE's main purpose is to create a habitat that supports human life by protecting its residents from external conditions that might otherwise pose a threat. In that sense, it is not at all different from the habitats built here on Earth, except that special considerations must be taken into account when designing habitats for the Moon.

This includes the lack of a breathable atmosphere, the extremes of temperature, the type of terrain and the low gravity of the Moon, which is approximately 16.5% of that of Earth. The lack of a protective magnetic field also means that any lunar base will also have to be able to protect its inhabitants from solar and cosmic radiation, not to mention the small meteorites that regularly fall on the surface.

For their concept, Alfatzis and the Spaceship EAC team were rewarded with a second place. As Alfatzis indicated, his success was due to the diversified talents that his team brought to the table:

"The multidisciplinary nature of our team, from aerospace engineers to biologists, helped us to examine all the different details of construction and energy requirements. The whole experience led us to think more deeply about the different aspects of lunar construction and habitation, showing us many different possibilities for our future on the Moon. "

Currently, ESA, CNSA, Roscosmos and NASA hope to build a lunar outpost by the end of 2020 or early 2030. In all likelihood, this base will be the result of cooperation between these and other agencies, all which will benefit from having a permanent research base that will help facilitate future missions to Mars and other locations in the Solar System.

Additional reading: ESA


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Mars One is the "one-way trip to the Red Planet" that will never happen https://tech2.org/mars-one-is-the-one-way-trip-to-the-red-planet-that-will-never-happen/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:10:54 +0000 https://tech2.org/mars-one-is-the-one-way-trip-to-the-red-planet-that-will-never-happen/

Since Earth is being overpopulated, we can not help but wonder if humans could survive on other planets like Mars. This "old-fashioned good curiosity" prompted Mars One, a Dutch non-profit company, to organize a one-way trip to the Red Planet.

To carry out this project, the team needed at least four earthlings, who will establish the first human settlement on the Red Planet. That is, space travelers, who wanted to be part of this mission, are expected to never return. And, despite the possibility of death, 200,000 applicants still signed up for the project.

In 2015, Mars One finally revealed the names of 100 finalists who will remain in the race for this human mission to Mars.

through Forbes

Unfortunately, finalists who hope to start over on another planet will have to stay here on Earth (forever) as the company's seemingly ambitious and impossible goal did not work. Reports of his financial loss caught the attention of people after a Redditor had run into a bankruptcy notice for the company for the Civil Court of the City of Basel in Switzerland, where the parent company of Mars One is located.

The source even mentioned that on January 15, 2019, the Civil Court of the city of Basel declared the company bankrupt. With less than $ 25,000 in their accounts. Since then, the company has been quiet and has not boosted its operations. In an interview with Engadget, The creator of Mars One, Bas Lansdorp confirmed the news and told the publication that he was doing his best to "find a solution".

Bas Lansdorp / via WOSU Radio

The company also noted that Mars One's non-profit arm, the Mars One Foundation, based in the Netherlands, is still alive and well: "The bankruptcy only involves Mars One Ventures AG and does not affect the financial position of the company." Mars One Foundation, which is the driving force behind the mission. "

"The Mars One Foundation is actively continuing its efforts to secure funding for the next steps of the mission, either through the company listed or directly at the Foundation."

However, many people still have doubts about the Mars One project. Some even described the company's objective as a scam or "fraudulent nature", after the media reported that the number of people who showed an interest in living in Mars was actually 2,761 and not 200,000.

What are you waiting for? The promises are destined to break.

through Giphy


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New study finds changes in the ecosystem after the loss of large white sharks https://tech2.org/new-study-finds-changes-in-the-ecosystem-after-the-loss-of-large-white-sharks/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 14:03:57 +0000 https://tech2.org/new-study-finds-changes-in-the-ecosystem-after-the-loss-of-large-white-sharks/

The waters around Seal Island in False Bay, South Africa, are known for the great white sharks that break the water in search of seals (left image), but the recent disappearance of great white people here has led to the appearance of another predator of the apex, Sharks of seven gills (right image) that now dominate the area. Credit: white shark image by Chris Fallows; Image of the Sevengill shark by Neil Hammerschlag.

A new study has documented unexpected consequences following the decline of large white sharks in an area of ​​South Africa. The study found that the disappearance of the great whites has led to the appearance of sharks of seven young, a great predator of a different habitat. A living fossil, seven-gilled sharks look a lot like the relatives of the Jurassic period, unique in having seven gills instead of the typical five in most other sharks.

These findings are part of a long-term collaborative study between shark researcher Neil Hammerschlag of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Miami (UM) and wildlife naturalist Chris Fallows of Apex Shark Expeditions.

The investigation focused on the waters surrounding Seal Island in False Bay, South Africa, a site well known for its large "flying" white sharks that come out of the water when they attack Cape seals. Since 2000, the research team has spent more than 8,000 hours observing large vessel targets, during which they recorded 6,333 shark sightings and 8,076 attacks against seals. These data revealed that for more than a decade, large white numbers remained relatively stable, but in 2015 sightings began to decline sharply.

"In 2017 and 2018, their numbers reached a historic low, with large targets that completely disappeared from our surveys for weeks and months at a time," said study lead author Neil Hammerschlag, associate research professor at the Rosenstiel School. of the UM and Abess. Center of Science and Politics of the Ecosystem. "While the reasons for its decline and disappearance remain unknown, it gave us a truly unique opportunity to see what happens in an ocean ecosystem after the loss of an apex predator."




A new study has documented unexpected consequences after the fall of the great white sharks at a feeding site in South Africa. The researchers found that the disappearance of the great whites led to the unique appearance of sharks of seven young, an apex predator otherwise associated with seaweed from a different area. Credit: Neil Hammerschlag, Lacey Williams, Monique Fallows and Chris Fallows. (2019). The disappearance of white sharks leads to the novel appearance of an allopatric predator, the seven-gill shark. Scientific reports. DOI: 10.1038 / s41598-018-37576-6

"In more than 18 years of work at Seal Island, we had never seen seven sharks in our surveys," said co-author Chris Fallows. "After the disappearance of white sharks in 2017, seven young began to appear for the first time and have increased in number since then."

During the periods of great white absence in 2017 and 2018, the researchers documented 120 sightings of sharks from seven offspring and even witnessed how an individual attacked a living seal. In South African waters, sharks of seven offspring have no equal in the food web except for the great white whale and killer whale. Historically, the only known aggregation site for the seven gills in False Bay was located 18 km from Seal Island, within the beds of coastal marine algae. The study suggested that the appearance of seven-gill sharks on Seal Island was due to the disappearance of large white sharks, which allowed the seven to exploit the area without risk of predation on the great white sharks or compete with them for the shared dam.

This 18-year study provided new insights into the various ways in which a marine ecosystem can be altered after the loss of a apex predator.

The study, entitled "The disappearance of white sharks leads to the appearance of the novel of an apex apex predator, the shark of seven pups", was published in the online magazine Scientific reports on February 13, 2019.


Explore further:
Are sharks attacked by killer whales off the coast of Cape Town?

More information:
Scientific reports (2019). DOI: 10.1038 / s41598-018-37576-6

Journal reference:
Scientific reports

Provided by:
University of Miami


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