Science – Tech2.Org https://tech2.org Largest Nonprofit Digital Media. We work to Give a Voice to the powerless, to help Public & to Illuminate their lives. Wed, 17 Jul 2019 17:41:33 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.2.2 A brief history of astronaut ice cream in the failed space refresh, created for the Apollo missions https://tech2.org/a-brief-history-of-astronaut-ice-cream-in-the-failed-space-refresh-created-for-the-apollo-missions/ Wed, 17 Jul 2019 17:41:33 +0000 https://tech2.org/a-brief-history-of-astronaut-ice-cream-in-the-failed-space-refresh-created-for-the-apollo-missions/

spacecream071619.jpg "src =" http://gothamist.com/attachments/nyc_clampen/spacecream071619.jpg "width =" 640 "height =" 427 "/> <br /> <i>    Freeze-dried ice cream, an astronaut treat or the Big Space conspiracy? (AHPhotosWPG / Shutterstock)</i></div>
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<p>Scream, you scream, we all scream for reconstituted dairy powder. I think that's what they say? Certainly, it would be appropriate to say it now, as we prepare to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the lunar landing of Apollo 11 (July 20, 1969) and at the same time ride a heartbreaking heat wave. The missions of Apollo, we realized, gave us a freeze-dried ice cream, a spaceless food that is absolutely unsuitable for space travel, but maybe quite good for the scorching summer days. If you are willing to put aside the winning properties of the ice cream classic and hang all your hopes on heat resistance, that is. </p>
<p>Anyway, in honor of the imminent achievements of astronautics, we remember: freeze-dried ice cream, the space dessert that perhaps never reached space. (Not including that time, Stephen Colbert sent him on a balloon).</p>
<p>When NASA began to embark people on space flights, they lacked clarity about what zero gravity might mean for the human digestive process. John Glenn enjoyed the first recorded space snack, a tube of apple sauce, in 1962, but the astronauts needed more sincere options. Without the ability to freeze the ingredients in the first missions, all the foods had to be dehydrated, lyophilized or heat treated so that they could survive at room temperature. NASA enlisted at the Whirlpool Corporation to help with the mission-ready menus, which is apparently the way we discovered how to freeze and dry the ice cream: take a slab of the dessert and freeze it at -15 degrees Celsius, then vaporize the crystals of ice and siphon Turn them off, until the product finally becomes a kind of crispy and foamy brick. </p>
<p>If you let it sit in your mouth for a few minutes, instead of just cracking the "treatment" like a cookie, this sci-fi wafer supposedly acquires a creamy texture that recalls its primary state. Allegedly. </p>
<p>But the fact that the astronauts have experienced their disconcerting mouth feel while watching our chaotic rock remains murky. Vickie Kloeris, a food scientist who has worked for a long time with NASA and the International Space Station, told NPR in 2011 that the ice cream flew only once, during the Apollo program. And in fact, the vanilla ice cream appears in the menu of the Apollo 7 mission in 1968, according to a contemporary press release, but there is no clear indication that dessert has definitely achieved on board. Even so, that is the classically associated flight with this elusive snack.</p>
<p>Walter Cunningham, the only member of the Apollo 7 crew still alive, remembers buying things at the Johnson Space Center gift shop in Houston. "It's not bad, but after a few times you realize that you really do not need more." -But he insists he does not remember eating astronaut ice cream on the spaceship. Remember vividly the chocolate pudding and the bacon bits, but not the piece of ice cream. Mission transcripts do not mention dessert either, and the curator of the National Air and Space Museum, Jennifer Levasseur, told Vox:</p>
<blockquote><p>It is very likely that he has never flown. It was probably done, it was tested on the ground and it was rejected. They always have the opportunity to try things in advance, and they probably thought it was as horrible as it really is when you buy it in the gift shop.</p></blockquote>
<p>Regardless of taste, the reason freeze-dried ice cream has been limited mainly to the museum's gift shops (courtesy of Astronaut Foods) has more to do with its consistency. If we were to throw it to the last frontier, the floating chalk crumbs would make the astronauts go crazy by sneaking into their eyeballs and their electronic devices. </p>
<p>However, since the 1960s, science has discovered how to bring a freezer into space. In 2006, the shuttle Atlantis flew the GLACIER, equipped with Blue Bell cups with swirls of chocolate, to the International Space Station. The ISS got a fresh lot in 2012. </p>
<p>Meanwhile, the astronaut's ice cream has found an audience among backpackers, trainers and soldiers in hot climates like Afghanistan, where the refusal of the product to melt can overcome the fresh and refreshing properties of the original. Maybe, when the temperatures exceed 100 degrees this weekend, you will appreciate a little more your serving of freeze-dried milk fat. Find him at a museum gift shop near you.</p>
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]]> NASA officials at the Glenn Symposium address a recent leadership review https://tech2.org/nasa-officials-at-the-glenn-symposium-address-a-recent-leadership-review/ Mon, 15 Jul 2019 09:21:00 +0000 https://tech2.org/nasa-officials-at-the-glenn-symposium-address-a-recent-leadership-review/

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CLEVELAND, Ohio – The reassignment of NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration and Human Operations, Bill Gerstenmaier, was a shock to most members of the space flight community. This was made clear at the Glenn Symposium that was held from July 10 to 12.

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William H. Gerstenmaier, former Associate Administrator of NASA, Human Exploration and Operations. Photo credit: NASA

William H. Gerstenmaier, former Associate Administrator of Human Exploration and Operations at NASA. Photo credit: NASA

CLEVELAND, Ohio – The reassignment of NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration and Human Operations, Bill Gerstenmaier, was a shock to most members of the space flight community. This was made clear at the Glenn Symposium that was held from July 10 to 12.

Gerstenmaier is well respected and has served in the post for more than a decade. There had been no discernible signs of any displeasure or any break in leadership involving Gerstenmaier and other members of NASA or the administration of President Trump.

However, at the end of July 10, NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine announced through a memo to NASA employees that Gerstenmaier was being reassigned as a special assistant to NASA Deputy Administrator Jim Morhard. Former astronaut Ken Bowersox, who served as deputy of Gerstenmaier, was cleared to assume the position of interim associate administrator.

The next day, July 11, both Morhard and Bowersox were present at the John Glenn Memorial Inaugural Symposium in Cleveland, Ohio. The event was organized by the American Astronautical Association in conjunction with NASA's Glenn Research Center.

Morhard was the opening speaker of the event, but he did not address the change of leadership in his comments. Gerstenmaier had been scheduled to speak later in the morning about the planned Lunar Gateway. Bowersox gave the presentation instead.

Space Insider I had the opportunity to ask the two administrators about the leadership change.

"Bill Gerstenmaier has been a visionary," Morhard told Spaceflight Insider. "You think of the commercial team, you think of ISS, you think of SLS, you think of Orion, you think of Gateway. He has guided them all. I mean, this is an incredible man that we should thank for what he has done for the country and for NASA in terms of advancing our priorities in science and technology, and in exploration. So this is not easy, to say the least. "

"But you look at the people in your position," Morhard continued, "your normal life has been about three years, Bill was there at eleven! Then, you know, people are surprised, but the reality is that we have changes There will be a constant change for what we have to do. "

Morhard was asked if there was a change of direction or a new sense of urgency that precipitated the decision.

"You know there's a sense of urgency," he said. "And certainly a new pair of eyes is always useful, but again, for a gentleman like Bill, who has been there, eleven years is a long time for any position at NASA, there is nothing that Bill has done wrong. Ken Bowersox has played important roles in the commercial space, in NASA, in the Navy, and we have full confidence in him to make this transition. "

Bowersox was still adjusting to the news of his new assignment.

"All I can say is that it also surprised me," Bowersox told Spaceflight Insider. "And I just think about the world of the guy who hired me, Bill Gerstenmaier, and I can tell you story after story about him, working with him and for him over the years, all I know is that he would want us to keep moving forward and That's what we're going to do, let's move as fast as we can, and we believe that the best way to honor our boss, Bill Gerstenmaier, is to move as fast as we can to advance to the surface of the Moon. "

Bowersox is highly qualified to lead that effort. He is the veteran of five space shuttle missions and an extended stay aboard the International Space Station as the commander of Expedition 6. Bowersox served as the vice president of Astronaut Security and Mission at Spacex from 2009 to 2011. He served as a consultant to customers. in the space industry, and was part of the NASA Advisory Board before being hired to hold the position of associate associate administrator of NASA for Explorations and Human Operations.

Another announcement in Bridenstine's note was the reassignment of Associate Associate Administrator for Development of Exploration Systems, Bill Hill. Hill will be a special advisor to Associate Administrator Steve Jurczyk. Tom Whitmeyer will take over Hill's previous position.

Gerstenmaier began his career at NASA at NASA Glenn (then the NASA Lewis Research Center) as an aeronautical engineer working on the tests of the Space Shuttle's wind tunnel in 1978. Over the years, he held leadership in numerous programs of the Space Shuttle and the ISS, including as Director of the ISS program in 2002. He became an associate administrator for space operations in 2005, and was appointed associate administrator for human exploration and operations when NASA merged its mission addresses of exploration and space operations in 2011.

Tagged: Glenn Symposium Lead Stories NASA William Gerstenmaier

Michael Cole

Michael Cole is a lifelong space flight enthusiast and author of some 36 educational books on space flight and astronomy for Enslow Publishers. He lives in Findlay, Ohio, not far from the birthplace of Neil Armstrong, Wapakoneta. His interest in space and his experience in journalism and public relations are satisfied by his focus on research and development at NASA's Glenn Research Center and his Plum Brook Station test center, both in northeastern Ohio. . Cole approached SpaceFlight Insider and asked to join SFI as the first member of the "Glenn Team" of the organization.


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NASA Has Announced The First Fruit They'll Grow On The ISS, And It's Hot https://tech2.org/nasa-has-announced-the-first-fruit-theyll-grow-on-the-iss-and-its-hot/ Mon, 15 Jul 2019 09:13:54 +0000 https://tech2.org/nasa-has-announced-the-first-fruit-theyll-grow-on-the-iss-and-its-hot/

If all goes to plan, in November this year the International Space Station (ISS) is about to get a bit spicier.

Researchers are hoping to send up Spanish chili pepper plants (Capsicum annuum), which could make peppers the very first fruit to be grown in space by US astronauts.

"We were also looking for varieties that do not grow too tall, and yet are very productive in the controlled environments that we would be using in space," NASA plant physiologist Ray Wheeler told Dylan Bida at the Rio Grande Sun.

"The astronauts have often expressed a desire for more spicy and flavourful foods, and they have a bit of hot flavor.

Although there are thousands of different types of chili peppers, Spanish peppers have been chosen in part because they grow at high altitudes, have short growing periods, and can be easily pollinated.

Astronauts and cosmonauts have been successfully growing plants in space stations since 1982, when the crew of the Soviet Salyut 7 spacecraft first grew the model plant Arabidopsis.

Russian cosmonauts have also been eating their own space since 2003, but that was not until 2015 that American astronauts got their first taste of space lettuce.

We have now grown plenty of different vegetables on the ISS, including lettuce, Swiss chard, radishes, Chinese cabbage, and peas.

It's important to note here that they are botanically part of a fruit, and Russians grew it for years in the Russian segment of the ISS. However, no US astronaut has so far grown a fruiting plant in space, meaning that later this year, the Spanish chili pepper could be the first.

Plants have a bit of trouble growing in microgravity, as their root systems are complex and typically use Earth's gravity to orientate themselves.

But astronauts have successfully coaxed plants into growing aboard the ISS by using special types of light, and supplementing other techniques for helping the plants figure out which way is "up" and "down".

Back in 2018, a new, nearly self-sufficient growth system called The Advanced Plant Habitat was sent to the ISS, joining The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) to help the crew grow fresh food.

This is all important for NASA's ambitious plan to eventually send humans to Mars. We are looking at somewhere between six months and a year to make it to Mars, and once the space pioneers are on their way, we can not easily get them more fresh food from Earth.

That's not even mentioning their stay on the Red Planet, and then the trip home. Growing their own food is a pretty big priority.

"We can build all the rockets we want to go to Mars, but we will not work unless we have food to eat," Jacob Torres, a horticultural scientist at NASA, told Bida.

The researchers are working on having a variety of crops in space, particularly focusing on having a wide variety of nutrients and vitamins.

"We need to grow enough to supplement diet," Torres explained to CNN. "Just like here on Earth, we can not live on the same thing."

"Just imagine having a fresh pepper to bite into after months of eating cardboard," he added.


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Hubble Spots "Impossible" debris disk around a black hole https://tech2.org/hubble-spots-impossible-debris-disk-around-a-black-hole/ Mon, 15 Jul 2019 09:06:32 +0000 https://tech2.org/hubble-spots-impossible-debris-disk-around-a-black-hole/

the Hubble Space Telescope It's like an old dog that constantly teaches the astronomical community new tricks. Throughout its almost thirty years of operation, it has revealed vital data on the expansion of the Universe, its age, the Milky Way, supermassive black holes (SMBH), other star systems and exoplanets, and the planets of the Solar System. .

More recently, an international team of researchers using the Hubble made a discovery that was not only fascinating but also completely unexpected. In the heart of the spiral galaxy NGC 3147, they spotted a thin disk of swirling gas that was precariously near a rear hole that has approximately 250 million solar masses. The finding was a complete surprise, since the black hole was considered too small to have a structure around it.

Located approximately 130 million light-years from Earth, NGC 3147 is a spiral galaxy with a relatively small SMBH at its core. Things isAccording to current astronomical theories, a black hole of this size should not have a disk in orbit. However, since the disk orbits so close to the event horizon of this SMBH, it presents astronomers with the opportunity to test Einstein's theories of Special and General Relativity.

The artistic impression of the trajectory of the S2 star as it passes very close to the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Credit: ESO / M. Kornmesser

Like Stefano Bianchi, researcher at the Università. degli Studi Roma Tre and the lead author of the study, explained in a recent press release from NASA's Hubble:

"This is an intriguing look at a disk very close to a black hole, so close that the speeds and intensity of the gravitational force affect the appearance of light photons. We can not understand the data unless we include the theories of relativity. "

In smaller galaxies such as NGC 3147, it is not assumed that there is enough material gravitationally captured to feed their SMBHs regularly, which makes them "malnourished black holes". As such, it is likely that the small amount of inflation material they consume inflates and forms a donut-shaped bull, instead of flattening it into a thin disk.

Therefore, it was quite surprising to see a disk surrounding the black hole in NGC 3147 that looks like the most powerful ones around SMBH that are much larger at the center of extremely active galaxies. As explained by Ari Laor of Technion-Israel Institute of Technology:

"We thought that this was the best candidate to confirm that below certain luminosities, the accretion disk no longer exists, what we saw was something completely unexpected." We found that gas in motion produces characteristics that we can only explain as produced by material which rotates on a thin disc very close to the black hole. "

Illustration of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Credit: NRAO / AUI / NSF
Illustration of a supermassive black hole surrounded by a rubble disk. Credit: NRAO / AUI / NSF

These observations were particularly surprising since the research team initially selected NGC 3147 to validate accepted models of galaxies. These models predict that the accretion discs form when the gas is trapped by a gravitational pull SMBH. As the discs gain speed from the rotatonal speed of the black hole, they begin to emit an intense light, producing a bright nuclear known as a quasar.

However, once less material is introduced into the disk, it begins to break and becomes weaker. When the team observed NGC 3147, they expected to see an active galaxy of lower luminosity with a malnourished black hole. As Bianchi explained:

"The type of disk we see is a small quasar that we did not expect to exist. It's the same kind of disk we see in objects that are 1,000 or even 100,000 times brighter. The predictions of current models for the dynamics of gases in very weak active galaxies clearly failed. "

As noted, because the disk is so deeply integrated into the intense gravitational field of the black hole, the light of the gas disk is modified according to Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. This theory describes how the curvature of space-time is altered in the presence of a gravitational field, which can even affect the behavior of light (described in Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity).

Artist's impression of the black hole disk NGC 3147. Credit: ESA / Hubble

Based on their observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), the team determined that the material on the disk was moving at more than 10% of the speed of light. At these extreme speeds, the material on the disk seemed to glow as it traveled to Earth on one side and attenuated as it accelerated on the other (an effect known as relativistic transmission).

The Hubble observations also showed that the gas is so embedded in the gravitational well of the black hole that the wavelength of the light stretches, making it appear more red. Thanks to the sharp resolution of STIS, the team was able to isolate the dim light coming from the black hole region and block the polluting light. As Chiaberge said:

"Without Hubble, we would not have been able to see this because the black hole region has a low luminosity, the luminosities of the stars in the galaxy eclipse anything in the nucleus, so if you look at it from the ground, you are dominated by the brightness of the the stars, which drowns the weak emission of the nucleus. "

The team hopes to take advantage of this latest discovery by using Hubble to search for similar compact discs around black holes of low luminosity. If successful, the resulting discoveries will provide astronomers with additional opportunities to see relativity in action.

The study describing the team's observations recently appeared in the Monthly notices from the Royal Astronomical Society.

Additional reading: Hubble, MNRAS


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Snowball: the dancing cockatoo can perform 14 different dance moves https://tech2.org/snowball-the-dancing-cockatoo-can-perform-14-different-dance-moves/ Mon, 15 Jul 2019 08:22:45 +0000 https://tech2.org/snowball-the-dancing-cockatoo-can-perform-14-different-dance-moves/

The birds just want to have fun! Snowball, the cockatoo, which gained fame on the Internet in 2007 when it dances with the Backstreet Boys' All (Backstreet & # 39; s Back), has been waving a tail feather by science. The team of researchers, led by psychologist Dr. R. Joanne Jao Keehn, sought to understand why he could move at the pace that other primates, such as gorillas and chimpanzees, closest relatives of humans, can not.

Snowball showed an impressive range of 14 different dance moves, plus two compound movements. While dancing to the 80 classics. Another that bites the dust Y Girls just want Have funThe sulfur-crested cockatoo bounced, raised its foot, posed with its crest raised, made an excellent blow to the head and even showed a movement that researchers call voguing.

"The most interesting thing for us is the great diversity of their movements in music," said Professor Aniruddh Patel.

The team says that Snowball's ability to devise new moves, as well as his ability to improvise a different dance every time he listens to a song, shows flexibility and creativity.

Patel's research in 2009 gave Snowball the honor of being named the first non-human animal to prove conclusively that it can dance at a pace.

So why can humans and cockatoos do boogies when primates can not even take advantage of the rhythm? It all comes down to the fact that we share a number of characteristics with the birds, all of which adds to a penchant for moving to music, according to the team.

For us, dancing is a social activity, and we are more likely to dance in a group than in ours. Next, the researchers want to find out if Snowball is the same.

Read more about animals and music:


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The head of NASA was fired while the Trump administration vent frustration over delays in the lunar landing https://tech2.org/the-head-of-nasa-was-fired-while-the-trump-administration-vent-frustration-over-delays-in-the-lunar-landing/ Mon, 15 Jul 2019 08:08:24 +0000 https://tech2.org/the-head-of-nasa-was-fired-while-the-trump-administration-vent-frustration-over-delays-in-the-lunar-landing/

The sudden elimination of NASA's human exploration chief, William Gerstenmaier, on Wednesday is a clear signal that the White House is increasingly frustrated with the agency's efforts to return humans to the surface of the moon for the first time. year 2024.

The administration of Donald Trump is focused on the laser on that date, which would come during a second term of his presidency, in case he was re-elected.

But despite the mandate, NASA has continued to fight against the delays and costs that have threatened the program.

And the overthrow of one of the longest service bulwarks in the agency shows how much the White House and NASA's politically appointed leadership are willing to interrupt NASA and try to break the bureaucracy that many think has stopped its exploration efforts for years.

In March, Mike Pence, the vice president of EE. UU., Shot the first warning shot, announcing a new accelerated calendar for NASA's lunar landing plans.

Instead of taking humans there by 2028, he said, his new cargo would be in five years. He put the NASA leaders on notice, saying that if they could not complete the mission, they would be responsible.

"To achieve this, NASA must become a leaner, more responsible and more agile organization," he said.

"If NASA is not currently able to take American astronauts to the Moon in five years, we must change the organization, not the mission."

Industry officials said that Mr. Pence and others in the White House have been furious over the agency's lack of progress, particularly in relation to the massive rocket known as the Space Launch System, or SLS, that NASA has been developing for more than a decade, but still has not fly.

White House officials expressed their dismay at NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine at a meeting in recent weeks, according to a space industry official who is not authorized to speak publicly about internal deliberations.

In an interview on Thursday night, Mr. Bridenstine flatly denied it and said: "If you are frustrated with the efforts of the agency, they have not told me because we are moving to reach the Moon in 2024."

He added: "I just want to be clear, this was my decision, I did not get this from the White House at all."

There was also tension between Mr. Bridenstine and Mr. Gerstenmaier, officials said.

Mr. Bridenstine had repeatedly said, for example, that he would not cut other programs within the agency to finance the lunar program, known as Artemis.

But Mr. Gerstenmaier contradicted it during a meeting of the advisory council, and said recently: "We're going to have to look for some efficiencies and make some internal cuts to the agency, and that's where it will be difficult," he said, according to SpaceNews.

The National Space Council declined to comment, but an administration official said: "This was an internal decision of NASA, and the statement of Administrator Bridenstine speaks for itself."

Mr. Bridenstine said he thinks "very well" of Mr. Gerstenmaier, said there was no tension between them and praised his 42 years of service in the agency.

However, he added that he had been thinking about making a change for some time and had grown tired of the delays in the repeated schedules and the excessive hardware costs necessary to fulfill the 2024 mandate of the White House.

"At some point there comes a time for new leadership," he said. "Cost and schedule are important. And I intend to make sure that we use every dollar of taxpayers wisely. "

Eddie Bernice Johnson, chair of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, criticized the decision to remove someone so abruptly with Mr. Gerstenmaier's enormous institutional knowledge.

"The badly defined fault schedule of the Trump administration for astronauts to land on the Moon in 2024 was going to be challenging enough to achieve it under the best of circumstances," he said in a statement.

"Eliminating an experienced engineering leader from that effort and the rest of the nation's human space flight programs at such a crucial moment in time seems, at best, wrong."

However, the White House is willing to show real progress and is tired of reports of delays in some of NASA's most critical programs.

For years, the SLS has faced criticism for being perpetually behind schedule and over budget.

A recent report, however, caught the attention of the White House with its especially grim picture of the program, officials said.

The Government Accountability Office discovered that the cost of the rocket had increased by 30 percent and that the first launch, initially scheduled for 2017, might not occur until mid-2021.

Despite those problems, NASA continued to pay tens of millions of dollars in "reward fees" to Boeing for rating high on performance evaluations, according to the report.

Another report highlighted the problems with the agency's plan to restore human space flight from US soil.

In his speech, Mr. Pence also put Boeing and the other companies he works with on notice, saying: "If our current contractors can not meet this goal, we will find some that will."

The space has been one of the top priorities for the White House, which considers exploration as a way to rejuvenate national pride, as it commemorates the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

It has also cast space as a race between superpowers, especially with respect to China, which landed a spaceship on the other side of the Moon this year, a historic first.

Mr. Trump has lobbied for a Space Force, a new branch of the army that would reinforce the Pentagon's efforts to defend the critical orbiting national security satellites that provide missile alert, intelligence and communications for soldiers on the battlefield. .

The White House also reconstituted the National Space Council, and its first directive at the end of 2017 was the return to the moon.

A year and a half later, however, the White House is not impressed with the agency's progress in meeting that goal.

And Mr. Gerstenmaier's expulsion was seen as a way to shake the agency, according to industry officials.

Mr. Gerstenmaier first came to NASA in 1977, and his career spanned the space shuttle program and the International Space Station.

Most recently, he oversaw the commercial crew program of the agency, the development of a new generation of spacecraft built by SpaceX and Boeing that would take NASA's first astronauts into space from US soil since the space shuttle retreated in 2011. He also directed the Artemis. Program.

Along the way, "Gerst," as he is known, has earned the trust of many lawmakers on Capitol Hill, has been the enduring face of NASA for international partners and has developed a reputation as an unconditional agency worker.

His sudden elimination was "a shot that did not go through the bow because it hit the bow," said an industrial official. Like several other interviewees for this story, the official spoke about the condition of anonymity to discuss internal deliberations within NASA and the White House.

"It's a signal for Mr. Bridenstine: meet or leave," the official said. "If Gerst is not sure, nobody is, or maybe just the astronauts who are currently on the space station."

The news of Mr. Gerstenmaier's removal was broken in an email that Mr. Bridenstine sent to NASA employees on Wednesday night, hours after Mr. Gerstenmaier had testified at the Capitol during a subcommittee of The House of Representatives.

"As you know, NASA has been given a bold challenge to put the first woman and the next man on the moon by 2024, with a focus on the ultimate goal of sending humans to Mars," Bridenstine wrote.

"In an effort to face this challenge, I have decided to make leadership changes in the Office of Exploration and Human Operations (HEO) Missions."

He said that Ken Bowersox, a former astronaut who had served as deputy administrator of the human exploration office, will assume the position as an actor.

Bill Hill, who had served with Mr. Gerstenmaier as assistant associate administrator in the human scouting office, was also reassigned. He will be a special adviser to Steve Jurczyk, an associate administrator of NASA.

Mr. Gerstenmaier was scheduled to appear on Thursday morning at a symposium in Ohio in honor of John Glenn. Mr. Bowersox appeared in his place.

He promised that NASA would reach the moon by 2024.

Washington Post

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"Spooky" – First captured image of quantum entanglement https://tech2.org/spooky-first-captured-image-of-quantum-entanglement/ Mon, 15 Jul 2019 07:46:40 +0000 https://tech2.org/spooky-first-captured-image-of-quantum-entanglement/

Quantum entanglement

"The image that we have managed to capture is an elegant demonstration of a fundamental property of nature, seen for the first time," said Paul-Antoine Moreau, of the University of Glasgow, on an elusive phenomenon that Albert Einstein once disconcerted. called & ghostly action at a distance & # 39;Just under three months after astronomers captured the first image of a supermassive black hole, physicists have managed to take a photograph of a strong form of quantum entanglement called Bell's tangle: capture of visual evidence.

Two particles that interact with each other, like two photons that pass through a beam splitter, for example, can remain connected, instantly sharing their physical states no matter how large the distance that separates them. This connection is known as quantum entanglement, and supports the field of quantum mechanics.

"The lagoon": the discovery that could have predicted why the universe exists

Einstein thought that quantum mechanics was "creepy" because of the snapshot of the apparent remote interaction between two entangled particles, which seemed incompatible with the elements of his special theory of relativity.

Later, Sir John Bell formalized this concept of non-local interaction that describes a strong form of entanglement that exhibits this fear. At present, although Bell's entanglement is exploited in practical applications such as quantum computing and cryptography, it has never been captured in a single image.

"Listening to the quantum universe": an amazing new technology

In an article published today in the journal Science Advances, a team of physicists at the University of Glasgow describes how they have made Einstein's fear visible in an image for the first time.

They devised a system that triggers a stream of entangled photons from a quantum light source to "non-conventional objects" – displayed in liquid crystal materials that change the phase of the photons as they pass.

Quantum birth of galaxies: "A cosmic games house full of mirrors that distort reality"

They installed a super sensitive camera capable of detecting individual photons that would only take an image when they saw a photon and its entangled "twin", creating a visible record of the entanglement of photons.

"It's an exciting result that could be used to advance the emerging field of quantum computing and lead to new types of images."

The Daily Galaxy through the University of Glasgow


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Astronomers have seen a moon forming around a proto-jupiter https://tech2.org/astronomers-have-seen-a-moon-forming-around-a-proto-jupiter/ Mon, 15 Jul 2019 07:39:31 +0000 https://tech2.org/astronomers-have-seen-a-moon-forming-around-a-proto-jupiter/

Exomoons Exaterretrial Life Image 6103 exomoon 1
The artistic impression of an exomoon orbiting a giant planet. Sci-News.com

Astronomers have discovered a young planet with a disk of gas and dust around it similar to the one from which the moons of Jupiter were born. The planet PDS 70 b is a gas giant several times the size of Jupiter, which is in the process of forming and is located approximately 370 light years away in orbit around the dwarf star PDS 70.

"Planets are formed from gas and dust discs around newly formed stars, and if a planet is large enough, it can form its own disk by gathering material in its orbit around the star," said astronomer Andrea Isella. , main author of the article. Said in a statement. "Jupiter and its moons are a small planetary system within our solar system, for example, and it is believed that Jupiter's moons were formed from a circumplanetary disk when Jupiter was very young."

But these circumplanetarios disks do not last long. It is believed that they disappear in 10 million years, and that means that there has not been a disc of this type within our Solar System for 4 billion years. To study the disks, astronomers had to hunt much further, looking for young stars with planets forming around them. Only a few planets have been found inside the discs.

The discovery was made using the Atacama millimeter / submillimeter array (ALMA) in Chile, a large variety of 66 radio telescopes that work together to detect electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths.

Formation of the circumplanetary lunar disk discovered around the planet 777x518 1
A color image of the millimeter wave radio signals from the ALMA observatory in Chile shows a gas and dust disk (to the right of the center) around the exoplanet PDS 70 c, the first observation of the type of circumplanetary disk that is created. The moons of Jupiter have been born more than 4 billion years ago. A. Isella, ALMA (ESO / NAOJ / NRAO)

The data collected by ALMA supported the previous findings using the Multiple Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) and the very large Telescope, which observed the wavelengths of visible light that are emitted when hydrogen ionizes when it falls on a star or planet. . Between these two data sources, Isella is confident that the planet PDS 70b is there.

By observing planets with circumplanetary disks, we could learn more about how planets and moons are formed: "There is a lot we do not understand about how planets are formed," said Isella. "And now we finally have the instruments to make direct observations and begin to answer questions about how our solar system was formed and how other planets could be formed."

The findings are published in Astrophysical Journal Letters.







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United States will launch its first own spacecraft to ISS after certification by NASA in May 2020 – Source https://tech2.org/united-states-will-launch-its-first-own-spacecraft-to-iss-after-certification-by-nasa-in-may-2020-source/ Mon, 15 Jul 2019 07:32:10 +0000 https://tech2.org/united-states-will-launch-its-first-own-spacecraft-to-iss-after-certification-by-nasa-in-may-2020-source/

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MOSCOW (Sputnik): The United States is scheduled to send its first US-made spacecraft instead of the Russian-made Soyuz to the International Space Station (ISI) after gaining certification from NASA in May 2020, a source said. from the aerospace industry to Sputnik. .

NASA has paid Russia for the seats of the Soyuz spacecraft since the US Space Shuttle was withdrawn. UU In 2011. In 2014, NASA awarded contracts to Boeing and Space X, for a combined total of up to $ 6.8 billion, to develop crew transportation systems and carry out initial operations. missions to the orbital laboratory in the framework of its commercial crew program.

"The first US spacecraft to take the crew to IIS is scheduled for a launch after being certified by NASA in May 2020," the source said.

Whether it's the Space X Crew Dragon or the Boeing Starliner, NASA must first certify that the spacecraft is safe for human spaceflight. Initially, both contractors had the intention of being certified in 2017, and now it is expected that neither of them will be ready until the end of 2019 at the earliest.

Space X tested Crew Dragon on an unmanned flight to the ISS in March. His first flight with crew on board is scheduled for November 15. On May 27, NASA astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley arrived in Russia's Zvyozdny Gorodok to train before their Demo-2 flight in the Crew Dragon.

NASA plans to conduct an unmanned test flight for Starliner in August. His first manned mission was initially scheduled for August, but then postponed until November. The company also revealed plans to increase the duration of Starliner's first manned flight to the ISS, but did not provide further details.


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See a gigantic dust storm that covers the north pole of Mars – Digital Trends https://tech2.org/see-a-gigantic-dust-storm-that-covers-the-north-pole-of-mars-digital-trends/ Mon, 15 Jul 2019 06:15:44 +0000 https://tech2.org/see-a-gigantic-dust-storm-that-covers-the-north-pole-of-mars-digital-trends/


See a gigantic dust storm that covers the north pole of Mars. Digital trends

An epic dust storm around the north pole of Mars has been photographed by the Mars Express orbiter of the European Space Agency. The smallest localized dust storms are common …


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