(MENAFN – The Conversation) It's the slow beginning of what will be a violent end for the Cbadini mission. At 10.00 BST on April 26, the spacecraft became the first ever to dive between Saturn and its spectacular innermost ring. This marks the start of its 'grand finale' consisting of 22 daring orbits – enabling a new era of science. Then, on September 15, it will crash into the planet's atmosphere and burn up. It is sure to be a sad but proud moment for those who have worked on the mission.
Cbadini was on April 22 when it flew by Saturn's moon Titan. The spacecraft you have used Titan not just as a fascinating scientific target in itself, but also to provide the gravitational slingshots needed to tweak, crank and change its orbit. It is Titan that gave it the impetus to penetrate the 2,400km gap between the rings and the planet every week before the mission ends.
Grand finale orbits. NASA / JPL-Caltech
During the next few months, the instrument teams have several new observations to make in this region. These include understanding a new radiation belt and taking pictures of the rings and other features. It will also image Saturn's cloud tops at the close range, weigh its ring system (which will indicate just how old it is), sample the atmosphere of the planet and its rings, and measure Saturn's internal structure.
But there are risks. The ring plane includes a lot of particles. These vary from micron-sized grains (to millimetre is equal to 1,000 microns) to mansion-sized chunks – and they could all collide with the spacecraft. Although Cbadini's path in the gap between Saturn and the rings has fewer particles than in the visible rings, we do not know exactly how few.
Artist's impression of the particles in Saturn's rings. Judy Schmidt / Flickr,
However, it is thought that the risks of a significant dust hit in the ring plane are low. At the large relative speed – a maximum of 124,000km per hour – a hit could be a significant problem for the spacecraft. So, Cbadini flies through the ring plane, it will be oriented to provide a shield for the rest of the spacecraft and its instruments. This was successfully done early in the mission when it was first inserted into orbit around Saturn, crossing outside the main rings.
The only protruding features beyond the shield are a 10-meter electric field antennae and an 11-meter magnetometer boom (used to make magnetic observations). These should make it possible to monitor dust, which makes a tiny plume of plasma (loose and electrically charged particles) as the spacecraft and booms are impacted. Hopefully, no large impact will disable the spacecraft.
Indeed, the best computer models show that. But even if it does, the spacecraft will eventually crash into Saturn – as it's supposed to. That is important. Cbadini must not crash onto interesting targets in the quest to find extraterrestrial lifeforms – particularly the moons Enceladus and Titan. These are subject to 'planetary protection' which means we can not put probes there which could carry contamination from Earth in the form of microbes.
The spacecraft will be useful until the moment it burns up – it will be sending back data continuously. These last measurements of the composition of Saturn's atmosphere, rotation rate and interior structure will be totally unique.
I've been privileged to work on Cbadini for 28 years. We proposed our instrument, the electron spectrometer, which measures the energy and direction of electrons, in 1989, and were selected to develop it in 1990. We then secured funding, and built, tested and calibrated the instrument before the launch in 1997.  The was a tense time. The powerful Titan IV rocket lifted off near dawn in October 1997, went behind a cloud from our vantage point and then thankfully emerged serenely on its way to Saturn, reaching the planet on July 1 2004. I remember nervously watching in the middle of the night as Cbadini burned its engines for an excruciating 96 minutes to slow the spacecraft into Saturn orbit. Luckily it all went smoothly.
Cbadini has operated at Saturn for almost half a Saturn year. It's made – in fact, it has rewritten the textbooks on the Saturn system. We now know that Saturn has 45 more moons than previously thought – placing the total now at 62.
Titan seen by Cbadini. NASA
At Titan, Cbadini – which means the moon is a frozen version of what the Earth was several billion years ago. Cbadini also discovered that the moon has made of liquid methane.
At Enceladus, Cbadini discovered water-rich plumes from a subsurface ocean and found that the ocean is salty. It has also confirmed that chemical reactions between water and rock on the moon can provide enough energy in the water. There have been many other incredible discoveries about the other icy moons, the atmosphere and the magnetosphere.
Enceladus's south polar plumes, as seen by Cbadini, November 30, 2010.
Some of the with the electron spectrometer include large amounts of hydrocarbons and nitriles (a form of organic compound) in Titan's atmosphere. These fall through the atmosphere and may form the dunes seen on Titan's surface. We also uncovered Saturn's ring atmosphere and ionosphere, and found weak atmospheres at the moons Rhea and Dione. An important discovery was that of water clusters and charged dust particles in plumes at Enceladus, helping us to understand that it has a subsurface ocean.
Needless to say, it has truly been an honor to be a part of the Cbadini mission and a privilege to work with colleagues, postdocs and students through the years. As the mission heads towards its end, the overwhelming feeling is that this has been one of humankind's most spectacular voyages of discovery.
But there are tantalizing discoveries yet to be made. Enceladus has just recently joined Mars and Jupiter's moon Europa in the top three likely locations for life beyond Earth in our solar system. I'm with the ExoMars 2020 rover and at Jupiter's icy moons with the. NASA also plans the Europa Clipper mission. Now, Cbadini has shown us that we must go back to Titan and Enceladus, too.