The bill, which aims to incorporate the law of the European Union into the British law to ensure a smooth transition to exit the country block, was approved by lawmakers 324 to 295.
Great Britain will leave the EU on March 29, 2019, at 2300 GMT, according to the bill.
The attention will now turn to the House of Lords, which is expected to offer fierce scrutiny of the bill, with many of its members in favor of staying in the EU, and where the government lacks a majority.
The government faced a battle to obtain the bill through the House of Commons, with a series of amendments tabled.
Suffered a shameful defeat last month after a group of 11 rebels Conservative deputies voted against the government to ensure that Parliament obtained a meaningful vote on the terms of the Brexit final agreement.
Europe still open
On Wednesday morning, the president of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, said he would be happy to help Britain rejoin the EU in the future after Brexit .
Juncker described Brexit as a "lose-lose situation" for Britain and the EU, labeling it "catastrophe".
"The British people, the British government, may wish to find one to get out of the Brexit situation and we are very willing to deal with them," Juncker told the European Parliament in Strasbourg, France.
"We will not kick the British, we would like the British to stay, and if they wish, they should be allowed to do so."
Juncker's comments came a day after European Council President Donald Tusk said the United Kingdom would be welcome to remain in the bloc if he changes his mind.