Edwin Hubble wrote in 1916 about the inventor of the famous “constant” that “Eventually, we reach the maximum limit of our telescopes. We measure shadows and search for ghostly errors for landmarks that are very high Are important. ” The universe is expanding at different distances to a particular point for space, affecting the existence of a timeline or age for the universe. New research by a team of astronomers employing a novel approach using a known distance of 50 galaxies from Earth has estimated the age of the universe to be 12.6 billion years.
Hubble’s measurements of today’s expansion rate do not match the rate based on how the Universe appeared shortly after the Big Bang 13 billion years ago. In 2019, using new data from the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers significantly reduced the possibility that this anomaly is a temporary one.
“The Hubble tension between the early and departed universe may be the most exciting development in cosmology in decades,” said Adam Rees, head researcher and Nobel Prize winner at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STSCI) and Johns Hopkins University. “This mismatch is developing and has now reached a point that is virtually impossible to dismiss as a temporary one. This disparity cannot happen by chance. “
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Approaches to the birth dates of the Big Bang and the universe rely on mathematics and computational modeling, using distance estimates of the oldest stars, the behavior of galaxies and the rate of expansion of the universe. Consider how long it will take for all items to return to the beginning.
A recent technique to measure the age of the universe uses observations of leftover radiation from the Big Bang, reports the University of Oregon – “It bumps and wiggles into spacecraft – the cosmic microwave background, or CMB – and the early universe.” Refers to situations in. As determined by Hubble’s constant. “
A new approach
A new approach reports physics professor James Schombert at the University of Oregon. In a paper published on July 17 in the Astronomical Journal, he and his co-workers recombine a distance-measuring device known as the bionic Tully-Fisher, independently of Hubble’s constant, which is the “distance scale.” Problem “as it is known, the vast distance of” solved “galaxies and signposts that faint and are difficult to investigate. “
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Schombert’s team reorganized the Tully-Fisher approach, using precisely defined distances in linear computations of 50 galaxies as a guide to measure distances to 95 other galaxies. The universe, he noted, is governed by a series of mathematical patterns expressed in equations. The new approach accounts for the mass and rotational curves of galaxies to bend those equations more like age and expansion rate.
Scombert’s team’s approach determines Hubble’s constant – the expansion rate of the universe – at 75.1 kilometers per second per megapsec, give or take 2.3. A megaparsec, a common unit of measurement related to space, is equal to one million parske. A parsec is about 3.3 light years. His team wrote that Hubble’s consistent values are lower than 70, with 95 percent confidence to be dismissed.
Traditionally used measuring techniques over the last 50 years, Schombert said, set a value at 75, but the CMB calculates a rate of 67. The CMB technique, using different assumptions and computer simulations, must still arrive at the same estimate, he said.
Physics of the universe incomplete
Over Adam Robert’s comments, Scombert said “tension in the field results from the fact that it does not” .. is said to “have this difference well outside observational errors and a lot of friction in the cosmological community.” Produces. “
Calculations from NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations in 2013 put the age of the universe at 13.77 billion years, which currently represents the standard model of Big Bang cosmology. The Hubble constant values estimated by different techniques are usually between 12 billion and 14.5 billion years of age in the universe.
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The new study, based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, adds a new element of how Hubble can be calculated to reach a constant, using direct observations, to determine the distance to galaxies. A purely empirical method can be introduced.
He said, “Our importance in the result of various schools of cosmology is that our understanding of the physics of the universe is incomplete with the hope of new physics in the future.”
The image at the top of the page took about three years to be produced by researchers at the Instituto de Astrophica de Canaria. It is the deepest image of the universe taken from space, recovering large amounts of ‘lost’ light around the largest galaxies in the iconic Hubble ultra-deep field.
The Daily Galaxy via University of Oregon, Max Goldberg