Achieved first gene knockout in cephalopod

Longfin inshore squid (Dorutithis mealy) hatchling. On the left is a control hatching; Note the black and reddish-brown chromatophores on your mantle, head and tankels alike. In contrast, embryos on the right before the first cell division were injected with CRISPR-Cas9 targeting the pigmentation gene (tryptophan 2,3 dioxinase); It has very little pigmented chromatophores and light pink to red eyes. Sincerely: Karen Crawford

A team from the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) has achieved the first gene knockout using Squipod Dorautithis mealy, An exceptionally important research organism in biology for nearly a century. The milestone study, led by MBL senior scientist Joshua Rosenthal and MBL Whitman scientist Karen Crawford, reported in the July 30 issue Current biology.

The team used CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to exclude a pigmentation gene in squid embryos, ending pigmentation with high efficiency in the eye and in skin cells (chromatophores).

“This is an important first step,” says Rosenthal, with the ability to eject and knock down genes in cephalopods to address a host of biological questions.

Cephalopods (squid, octopus, and cuttlefish) have the largest brain of all invertebrates, a distributed nervous system that provides instantaneous camouflage and sophisticated behaviors, a unique body plan, and mass messaging its own genetic information within messenger RNA Is able to explode, with others. Special Features These open many avenues for study and have applications in many fields from development and development to medicine, robotics, materials science and artificial intelligence.

The ability to knock out a gene to test its function is an important step in developing cephalopods as genetically trafficked organisms for biological research, which currently dominate genetic studies, such as fruit flies, Zarafish and mice.

The first gene knockout in cephalopod is achieved in the marine biological laboratory

Dorutithis mealy, often called Woods hole squid. D. Studies with Pelé have made major advances in neurobiology, including a description of the fundamental mechanisms of neurotransmission. Marine Biological Laboratory for an international community of researchers from local water d. Piyali collected. Sincerely: Roger Hanlon

It is also an essential step towards having the ability to knock down genes that facilitate research, such as genes that encode fluorescent proteins that can be imaged to track neural activity or other dynamic processes. is.

“CRISPR-Cas9 worked really well Doryteuthis; It was amazingly efficient, “Rosenthal says. Much more challenging was delivering the CRISPR-Cas system to a one-celled squid embryo, which is surrounded by a highly rigid outer layer, and then to the embryo via hatching Picking up. The team developed micro. Scissors to clip the surface of the egg and a beveled quartz needle to deliver CRISPR-Cas9 reagents through the clip.

Studied with Dorautithis mealy Beginning with the description of action potentials (nerve impulses) in the 1950s, there was fundamental progress in neurobiology, a discovery for which Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley became Nobel Prize winners in 1963. D. Peacock Has prepared neurologists around the world for MBL, which collects squid from local waters.

Recently, Rosenthal and his colleagues discovered widespread recycling of mRNA in the nervous system. Doryteuthis And other cephalopods. This research is under development for potential biomedical applications, such as pain management therapy.

D. Peacock However, genetic research is not an ideal species to develop as an organism. It is large and takes up a lot of space of the tank, more importantly, no one is able to culture it through many generations in the laboratory.

For these reasons, the next goal of the MBL cephalopod program is to transfer the new knockout technique to a small cephalopod species, Euprimna berry (hummingbird borewell squid), which is relatively easy to culture to create genetic strains.

The genome of the mysterious, legendary giant squid has been revealed

more information:
Current biology (2020). DOI: 10.1016 / j.cub.2020.06.099

Provided by Marine Biological Laboratory

Quotes: The first gene knockout in cephalopod was achieved (2020, 30 July) from until 31 July 2020.

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