A look back at first NASA research on ISS

The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique laboratory operating in low-Earth orbit. Over the past 20 years, researchers from 108 countries have conducted more than 3,000 investigations at the orbiting facility. In the early days of ISS assembly, research took place at a more modest level than today. Delay in launch zvezda From July 2000 the service module dropped the overall ISS assembly sequence, including luck Laboratory modules, the cornerstone of US research activities aboard the ISS in February 2001, are coming soon after the first research facilities. In order to take a leap forward on researching the ISS as soon as possible, mission managers approved the launch of the first three in September 2000 on the use of limited resources on the STS-106 mission NASASponsored Science Experiments.

Left: It appeared in September 2000 to the STS-106 crew as ISS. Right: crew of STS-106, front left to right, Malenchenko, Wilcutt, and Altman; Rear left to right, Burbank, Lu, Mastarachio and Morukov.

Space Shuttle Mission STS-106 On September 8, 2000, Commander Terence W. Wilkut, pilot Scott D. Altman, and mission specialist Edward T. Loo, Richard A. Mustachio set off with Daniel’s seven-man crew. C. Burbank, Yuri I. Malenchenko and Boris V. Morukov. The mission was dedicated to remodeling and preparing the ISS prior to the arrival of the first expedition crew and therefore had little additional time or space for the science payload. To make the integration process easier, the three experiments chosen had previous flight experience on a space shuttle mission, required crew time, and used less stowage available on board the ascent. One of the experiments, as a so-called sorty payload, would remain in the shuttle middeck throughout the shuttle mission, requiring only a second crew to move it to a paramilitary location aboard the ISS, and the third was a prefabricated stowage on the ISS only . Expedition 1 will be operated after the crew arrives.

Left: Morovic operates the CGBA in a shuttle middeck. Middle: Wilkte is operating the CGBA. Right: CGBA Isothermal Control Module.

The sorty payload includes a commercial generic bioprocessing appliances (CGBA), a single midcock locker-sized device that flew several times in previous space shuttle flights. The CGBA, manufactured by Bioserve Space Technologies at the University of Colorado in Boulder, provides automated processing, activation, periodic health checks for biological experiments and minimizing crew interaction for deactivation. On STS-106, CGBA incorporated the Isothermal Container Module (ICM) to provide temperature control to two experiments within the unit. An experiment, synaptogenesis in microgravity led by principal investigator (PI) Haig Kashishian Yale University In New Haven, Connecticut, seven gas exchange-group activation packs (GE-GAPs) are used to control home and development Drosophila melanogaster, Or the fruit flies away. ICM automatically controlled the GE-GAPs through a preset temperature profile during the mission. The experiment, first flown on STS-93 in 1999, tried to better understand the development of the nervous system of fruit flies in microorganisms. Kidney cell gene expression, a second CGBA experiment led by PI Timothy G. Hammond of Durham Veterans Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, used a single generic bioprocessing appliances (GBA) in ICM. The purpose of the experiment, first flown on STS-90 in 1998, was to study how the microsomal kidney affects the gene expression of proteins in cultured kidney cells. The CGBA functioned normally throughout the flight, but unexpected temperature excursions in the two experiments made interpretation of the results problematic.

Left: Students preparing samples for the PCG-EGN Dewar experiment. Middle: Still transferring PCG-EGN to Zarya module from a video of Lu. Right: PCG-EGN Dewar won the game in Zarya.

The first inactivated science experiment in the ISS was the protein crystal growth-enhanced gaseous nitrogen (PCG-EGN) dewar. Alexander MacPherson of the University of California at Irvine was the PI for the experiment who flew seven times during the Shuttle-Mir program. The day before launch, flash-frozen samples of 21 different protein solutions were loaded into capillary tubes provided by four investigators in a vacuum-jacketed container similar to a large thermos bottle with inner liner saturated with liquid nitrogen. . Middle and high school students from Alabama, California, Florida and Tennessee helped load 150 samples out of 500. Dewar entered the orbit around the shuttle, and once the ISS were open, Lu moved Dewar to a bizarre location. Zarya Modulus. Over time, liquid nitrogen boiled, frozen samples were melted, and the protein was out of solution. Without the disturbing effect of gravity, investigators expected large and pure crystals to grow to allow a more detailed understanding of their structure. After spending 46 days in space in October 2000, Dewar was returned to Earth by the next space shuttle mission to travel to the ISS, STS-92. The PCS-EGN Dewar experiment later flew four times on the ISS.

Left: The MACE-II experiment is floating in the Unity Node 1 module. Middle: Shepherd operating MACE-II in Unity during campaign 1. Rights: Operating MACE-II during campaign 2.

The third experiment started on the STS-106 was the Middeck Active Control Experiment-II (MACE-II), led by PI R. Rory Ninneman of the US Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with a collaborative team from the Massachusetts Institute was. Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, under the leadership of David W. Miller. Experiments flew on the STS-67 already as MACE-I in 1995 sought to demonstrate algorithms that could be used to reduce certain stresses such as vibrations experienced during future satellite launches or during orbital maneuvers can do. The multi-body platform test article, the structure of the MEE-II hardware that was tested, had four-inch-diameter struts connected to five nodes. During operation, it was free-floating but loosely in the module. The entire stage had 20 different sensors that monitor the vibration. During STS-106, the MACE-II experiment was launched as a passive stowage in the Spaceb module and the crew moved it Unity Node 1 module to wait for Expedition 1 crew to arrive. The commander of that crew, William M. Shepherd operated the MACE-II near the end of his mission and as he was not able to complete all the required sessions, managers called it Expedition 2 flight engineer Susan J. Decided to skip over the class to complete the hells. Experiment. The hardware came back in August 2001 on the STS-105.

The search for knowledge continues…