Scientists have developed a new vaccine that can safely and effectively trigger an immune response against a wide variety of strains of HIV, a breakthrough that can help prevent future deadly infection.
Researchers, including those from Harvard Medical School in the USA. UU., Discovered that the "mosaic" vaccine, created by combining pieces of different HIV viruses, is well tolerated and generated comparable and robust immune responses against HIV in healthy adults and rhesus monkeys.
"These results represent an important milestone," said Dan Barouch, lead author of the study published in The Lancet journal.
"This study demonstrates that the Ad26 prime mosaic, Ad26 plus gp140 enhances the candidate HIV vaccine-induced robust immune response in humans and monkeys with a comparable magnitude, kinetic, phenotype and durability and also provided 67 percent of protection against viral challenge in monkeys, "said Barouch.
Nearly 37 million people worldwide live with HIV / AIDS, with an estimated 1.8 million new cases each year. According to the researchers, a safe and effective preventive vaccine is urgently needed to stop the HIV pandemic.
A key obstacle to the development of HIV vaccines has been the lack of direct comparability between clinical trials and preclinical studies, they said.
To address these methodological problems, scientists evaluated the main candidates for HIV-1 vaccines based on adenovirus mosaic serotype 26 (Ad26) in parallel clinical and preclinical studies to identify the optimal HIV vaccine regimen to advance in efficacy clinical trials.
The trial recruited 393 healthy, non-HIV-infected adults (aged 18 to 50) from 12 clinics in East Africa, South Africa, Thailand and the USA. UU
Volunteers were randomly badigned to receive one of seven vaccine combinations or a placebo, and were given four vaccines within 48 weeks.
To stimulate, or "prepare," an initial immune response, each volunteer received an intramuscular injection of Ad26.Mos.HI V at the beginning of the study and again 12 weeks later.
Vaccine containing HIV mosaic Env / Gag / Pol antigens was created from many strains of HIV, administered using a common non-replicating virus (Ad26).
The results showed that all vaccine regimens tested were able to generate immune responses against HIV in healthy individuals and were well tolerated, with similar numbers of local and systemic reactions reported in all groups, most of which were from mild to moderate. severity.
Researchers also noted several limitations, including the fact that the relevance of vaccine protection in rhesus monkeys to clinical efficacy in humans is unclear.
There is no definitive immunological measure known to predict protection against HIV-1 in humans, they said.
"These results should be interpreted with caution." The challenges in the development of an HIV vaccine are unprecedented, and the ability to induce HIV-specific immune responses does not necessarily indicate that a vaccine will protect humans from HIV infection. HIV, Barouch said.
(This story has not been edited by Business Standard staff and is self-generated from a syndicated feed)