Coronaviruses that cause the common cold can infect people repeatedly, affecting immunity to the kovanaviruses that cause COVID-19, which can likewise be short-lived.
In a new study, published on 14 September in the journal Nature medicine, Scientists monitored 10 individuals for more than 35 years, to determine how often they were infected with four known climates Coronavirus. Since these viruses – known as HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 – either cause mild symptoms of the common cold or have no symptoms, the team periodically noted Blood of participants examined. Antibodies To detect new cases of infection.
When blood samples show an increase in the number of antibodies targeting a specific virus compared to prior samples, this means that the individual Immune system Is fighting a new infection. Researchers determined how this change in antibody levels was to constitute a confirmed infection rather than random fluctuations.
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Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Drs. Francis Collins said, “New data suggests that immunity to other coronaviruses is becoming very high at least after 12 months and in some cases, in no time.” ), Written in Research comment. The authors of the study found that in some instances, infection had occurred six months and nine months earlier.
The 10 study participants were all part of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (ACS) on HIV-1 infection and AIDS, a study of prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for HIV infection that began in the 1980s. All HIV-negative participants gave blood samples every three to six months during the study, with a total of 513 samples provided.
For the new study, the authors revisited those samples for coronovirus infection, specifically looking for antibodies that target a specific portion of the nucleocapsid of each virus – the hard shell of the protein that encapsulates their genetic material, Which is known as Royal army.
Based on this analysis, the team found that each participant caught three to 17 coronovirus infections within the study period, with prevalence occurring every six months to eight years and nine months. Most often, however, a particular coronavirus was reabsorbed approximately one year after prior infection.
“We show that infection by natural infection occurs for all four seasonal coronaviruses, suggesting that it is a common feature for all human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2,” the virus that causes COVID-19 , The authors wrote.
Although the authors have not studied SARS-CoV-2 in their research, they argue that the trend observed among common coronaviruses may still spread to new viruses. Despite belonging to the same family, all common coronaviruses are genetically and biologically distinct, so any traits shared between them “may be representative of all human coronaviruses, including SARS-COV-2”. That said, we do not yet know that SARS-CoV-2 has the ability to compare humans as much as others do.
“When interpreting these figures, at least three cavities must be taken into consideration,” Collins said.
First, participants’ fluctuating antibody levels do not tell us anything about whether they actually got sick from each reinfection. “The increase in antibodies has provided the necessary response to sniffing out a significant respiratory illness or turning it into a mild case of any disease,” Collins wrote. In theory, this four is also possible Virus There may be a genetic mutation that allowed them to strengthen people. And participants may have some immunity to the virus through white blood cells, rather than their antibodies alone.
Live Science previously reported that white blood cells are known as B cells and T cells, which serve to recognize foreign substances in the body, including the immune system to fight viruses and germs. The authors noted, “Antibodies are only one marker for immunity, which is likely also influenced by B cell- and T cell-mediated immunity.”
Call cells and B cells may also contribute to immunity against SARS-CoV-2, although we do not know how much Collins wrote. As people gain immunity from the virus, either through natural infection or future vaccines, it will be important to track how long the immunity lasts. It is possible that people will need to be vaccinated on a recurring basis to keep the virus at bay, Live Science previously reported.
In the new study, the team also found that seasonal coronovirus infections occur more frequently in the winter months than in the summer months in the Netherlands, and suggested that COVID-19 may eventually share the same seasonal pattern. Other experts have also predicted that COVID-19 may be broadcast annually after the epidemic ends.
Originally published on Live Science.