Physicists are currently in a golden age of new knowledge about black holes. Since 2015, researchers can obtain signals directly from a black hole merger using the laser interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), while observatories such as the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) have produced the first image Shadow of a black hole. This year was no exception, our black hole horizon expanded with a fresh crop of exciting and unique results. Here, we take a look at some of the most spectacular black hole findings of 2020.
Nobel Prize in Physics goes to Black Hole
As if to prove that this year black hole research, the highest achievement of science, Nobel Prize, Was handed over in October to three physicists whose work has elucidated the lives of these mysterious cosmic entities. Roger Penrose of Oxford University in Britain received one-half of the award for the discovery that the formation of a black hole is a strong predictor of general theory Relativity“, While Andrea Gies of UCLA and Reinhard Genzel of the University of Bonn, and the Mexican Plast Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, jointly shared the other half” for the discovery of a supersomantic compact object in the center of our galaxy, ” According. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Gheese is the only fourth woman to be awarded the Nobel in Physics, after Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert-Meyer in 1963, and Donna Strickland in 2018.
Read more: Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to 3 scientists for black hole discoveries
LIGO sees its biggest black hole accident
LIGO and its European counterpart Virgo observe black holes through gravitational waves, ginormal waves in the fabric space time Oscillate mass objects when emitted. The features have already led to several impressive discoveries. But in May, the collaboration announced that it had made its way Biggest black hole collision ever, 85 times the mass of the sun and 66 times the mass of the sun, 142 times the mass of the sun to form a black hole. In addition to setting records, the discovery was the first in the so-called “forbidden” area of the middleweight black hole. Although astronomers saw small black holes roughly the size of our sun and knew that millions of times the mass of the Sun’s mass is present in the galaxies’ center, the first one was found in this mid-range black hole Evidence was not found. Exactly how they came to be is a mystery that scientists are now working to solve.
Read more: Biggest black hole collision ever detected
The primordial black hole made it big
Immediately after big BangThe universe was permitted with hot and turbulent radiation. In some regions, energy was so dense that it could theoretically collapse on its own and create a black hole. While physicists are still not aware that these entities, known as primordial black holes (PBHs), exist, they have recently been considering what would happen if they did. Several papers, including one published in November, suggested that these black holes, some of which would be smaller than the dying stars. Conceiving can cause dark matter, An unknown substance that exerts a gravitational effect throughout the universe. Experiments are underway to discover PBH in the coming years and either prove or refute its existence.
Read more: Voice of the primitive black hole can fill our universe
Super-duper-size black holes may exist
What if you took an incredibly massive black hole sitting in the centers of galaxies and changed them to 11? The proposal was discussed by researchers in a paper in September “Massive black holes,” or SLABs. These units would weigh at least 1 trillion times the mass of the sun, 10 times larger than the largest black hole currently known, an animal with a mass of 66 billion solar masses called TON 618. Some SLABs could have formed in the early universe another class of primitive black holes, which means we can see His impression on cosmic microwave backgroundThere was a light left over from when our universe was only 380,000 years old. Others can be seen looking for the way in which they distort the light of distant stars, a SLAB must come between us. The concept remains fictitious for now but is gaining attention.
Read more: The black holes were so large that we had no idea that they could be hidden in the universe
LIGO detects a lost merger
The mass of most black hole pairs found by LIGO and Virgo instruments is similar to each other. But in April, the collaboration announced that they had celebrated Its most asymmetric accident yet. Objects sunken together at a distance of about 2.4 billion light years were about eight and 30 times the mass of our Sun. “This is roughly equal to the filling ratio in a regular Oreo [that] In a mega stuff orio, “Christopher Berry, a gravity-scientist at Northwestern University, Written in a blog post At that time. Such an unexpected event was considered rare enough that gravitational wave facilities would not see it after just a few years of running. The discovery has challenged these assumptions and prompted researchers to ponder Possibility of hierarchical merger, In which one black hole collides with another and then the resulting residue merges with yet another black hole as an explanation.
Read more: Scientists detected rare accident of two mismatched black holes
Telescopes view a black hole as a star
When a massive object falls within a certain distance from a black hole, the excessive gravitational forces present there can transform the object into a long-scattered object. This process, colloquially known as spaghettification, is rarely seen because most black holes are surrounded by an obscure cloud of gas and dust, pre-food as well as material escaping from the food. But in October, the European Southern Observatory managed to catch astronomers Spatification of a star In unprecedented detail using both Very Large Telescope and New Technology Telescope. The violent incident, known explicitly as 2019qiz, will give researchers insight into these events and help them understand them better Gravity In extreme environments.
Read more: Black hole turned a bad star into spaghetti
The closest black hole ever seen
No one wants to get too close to a black hole (see entry on Spagification). Fortunately, the cosmic Pac-Man was spotted in May by a pair of fellow stars named HR 6819 who are at an astronomically safe distance from their allies. Is located 1,000 light years away from Earth In the southern planetarium of the telescope, New black hole Three times closer than the previous record holder. Astronomers cannot directly observe a black hole, but were able to infer its presence based on how it affects the other two objects in the system, tugging on their orbits. Skywatchers in the Southern Hemisphere can see for themselves by consulting the stars in the HR 6819 system with a chart chart and looking at the constellation telescope, near the border with the constellation of Pavo, Peacock.
Read more: Astronomers find black holes closest to Earth
Black holes can be fuzzy
To make a black hole, matter And the energy must collapse to a small point of infinite density. Since such infinities must be physically impossible, theorists have long discovered a way to achieve such bizarre results. According to string theory, which takes the place of all particles and forces. Subatomic, vibrating strings, black holes can actually be something strange – a fuzzy yarn-like ball of fundamental strings. In October, a study showed that if neutrons are atoms in stars, a type of stellar residue that is not dense enough to form a black hole, then there are actually a bunch of stars, then these stars Narrowing together will actually make Not a black hole but a fuzzball Which will look like the said original yarn ball. The strange idea has yet to be completely eliminated, but there is a possible option to deal with infinity.
Read more: Black holes may not exist, but may fizzle out
Dangerous ‘naked’ black hole in the universe can lurk
According to physicists, every black hole is known as an event horizon – which is a boundary where once you fall, you never come out. Yet since the black hole was first posted, researchers have wondered if the event horizon is strictly necessary. Is it possible without a black hole, A so-called ‘naked’ black holeThe This can be dangerous because known laws of physics break down inside the black hole’s event horizon, and a naked black hole will not offer protection for that barrier. Although most theorists feel that nudity is prohibited for black holes, a paper in November suggested that there could certainly be a way to check. The trick is to see the difference between the gas flow or the gas and dust rings upon feeding the black disk, which may show a difference between the naked and normal black holes.
Read more: Are there dangerous ‘naked’ black holes in the universe?
Black hole treasure
Christmas came earlier this year for black hole scientists. In October, the collaboration under the supervision of LIGO and its European counterpart Virgo released a new list Dozens of gravitational wave signals Detected between April and September 2019. The 39 events involved several intriguing findings, such as a massive black hole merger, resulting in a remnant with 142 solar masses, a decomposed event with mass eight and thirty times larger than the Sun and a mysterious object. Either a small black hole or a big one neutron star. Researchers were thrilled with the data, which showed that facilities were picking up a new signal on average every five days, and plan to use it to better understand the behavior and frequency of black hole mergers.
Read more: Scientists have just found the largest neutron star (or smallest black hole)
Originally published on Live Science.